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New Issue Published: 8(1)

Our 1st issue of the 8th volume is just published. This time, we have featured 17 multidisciplinary articles including 2 short communications, 4 review and 13 research papers of authors from 10 countries covering aspects from different stems of life science. Enjoy reading!

Advancements in Life Sciences, volume 8, issue 1Cover; Volume 8, Issue 1
Published online: 25 November 2020
ISSN 2310-5380 

IN THIS ISSUE

 

 

Review Articles


Hyperhomocysteinemia: The independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases
Afifa Tanweer, Abida Bano, Warda Fatima, Hasnain Javed, pages 01-07
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 Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and associated with primary causes of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Association between Hcy and CVD has been a question for biologists over the last five decades. The circulating levels of Hcy can be increased by defects in enzymes involved in the metabolism of several B and therefore for homocysteine.  Although researchers have yielded conflicting findings on the link between homocysteine and CVD risk, but there is convincing evidence on link between B vitamin deficiencies and increased CVD risk. This review identifies the research conducted on this subject matter and provides a framework for the factors associated with Hcy and CVD. 

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Viral outbreaks: A real threat to the world
Muhammad Asif, Shah Nawaz, Zeeshan Ahmad Bhutta, Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar, Muhmmad Rashid, Shafqat Shabir, Muhammad Kashif Khan, Muhammad Muaaz Qadir, pages 08-19
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 Global public health is facing significant challenges in terms of emerging and re-emerging pathogens. The world is facing a new public health crisis emergence and spread of Coronaviruses outbreaks especially COVID-19 after nine deadliest viral outbreaks including Marburg virus, Ebola virus, Rabies, HIV, Smallpox, Hantavirus, Influenza, Dengue and Rotavirus. Coronaviruses (enveloped non-segmented positive-sense RNA viruses) belong to the Coronaviridae family, broadly distributed in humans as well as in other mammals. In December 2019, the COVID-19 outbreak was reported in the Wuhan, Hubei province of China. WHO confirmed that COVID-19 is associated with Huanan seafood (Wuhan). COVID-19 virus outbreak is more dangerous than its ancestors MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. Although the case fatality rate is lower, it has alarmed the world because of its rapid spread during this era of the modern world where the whole world is connected through different channels of trade. As the world is already facing economic challenges, underdeveloped countries are not capable of facing such challenges, and this outbreak may become worse than ever before. 

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Medicinal Properties of Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) Oil: An Overview
Khalid M. AL-Asmari, Isam M. Abu Zeid, Atef M. Al-Attar, pages 20-29
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 Coffee is one of the massive tropical crops in developing countries and historically understudied in subjects of crop nutrition and administration. Arabian coffee (Coffea arabica) plant belongs to the genus Coffea in the Rubiaceae family. It is known as the most widely recognized Coffea species created comprehensively summing up to over 75% of the all-out Coffea creation. Its compounds are a complex mixture of different chemicals that have many health benefits. The usage of various parts of a coffee plant, along with its oil is verified for the manufacturing of ancient medicines that helped in curing a number of ailments. These traditional uses were scientifically proven by many studies including psychoactive responses, neurological and metabolic disorders. Coffee oil consists mainly of triglycerol and fatty acids along with antioxidants. It also possesses some biologically active fatty acids that are anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic and anti-atherosclerotic in nature. This paper provides the medicinal properties and scientific review of Arabica coffee oil. 

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Next Generation Sequencing as Rapid Diagnosis of Multidrug Resistance Tuberculosis
Anse Diana Valentiene Messah, Jeanne Adiwinata Pawitan, pages 30-37
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 Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a threat to global health. In 2018, TB related death was estimated to be more than 1.5 million cases worldwide. Conventional diagnostic method, which requires a long time to get a result, causes delays in new cases discoveries that lead to delayed therapy. Further, delayed and inadequate therapy causes an increase in the level of resistance to anti-TB drugs that may lead to death. Therefore, diagnostic tools, which can detect quickly and accurately, are highly needed. Early and timely detection is crucial for globally effective TB control, but this is not popular in developing countries, especially in Asia. Therefore, the objective of this review is to provide current information on the use of NGS as a rapid diagnostic tool for MDR-TB, especially in Asian populations, and to highlight the various MDR genes. 

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Short Communications


Prevalence of MRSA colonization among healthcare-workers and effectiveness of decolonization regimen in ICU of a Tertiary care Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan
Sameena Parveen, Sheeba Saqib, Altaf Ahmed, Aqeel Shahzad, Nawal Zarish, Naveed Ahmed, pages 38-41
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 Background: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the nasal cavity and to determine the effectiveness of decolonization regimen among health care workers working in the Intensive care unit (ICU) at a Tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out during the period of June, 2018 to August, 2018. A total of 46 healthcare workers were screened to see the prevalence of MRSA in the nasal cavity. Samples from the nasal cavity were collected using sterile swabs, and processed for bacterial cultures. The samples were inoculated on Blood agar and chocolate agar and then incubated at 37℃ for 24 hours. After the incubation period, petri plates were checked for the growth of S. aureus (MRSA). After identification of colonizers, five days decolonization regimen of nasal mupirocin ointment and Chlorhexidine based body wash was used and repeated cultures were done to check the effectiveness of this regimen. IBM SPSS version 25 was used to check the statistically significant relationship between prevalence of MRSA colonization with profession and gender.

Results: Among the total 46 participants, 6 (13%) were found MRSA colonizers, 12 (26.08%) showed Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and remaining 28 (60.8%) showed no growth of S. aureus. The prevalence of MRSA colonization was found highest in nurses i.e. 66.67%, 16.67% in doctor and 16.67% were in respiratory therapists. The success rate of treatment regimen was 83.33%.

Conclusion: Results of the present study showed that the prevalence of MRSA was high in our setting but effectiveness of decolonization treatment regimen is similar to the worldwide success rate. 

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Characterization of carboxymethyl cellulase produced by Trichoderma asperellum
Nguyen Hoang Loc, Nguyen Hong Van, Hoang Tan Quang, pages 42-46
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 Background: The present study characterized extracellular carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), an enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of the cellulose, from Trichoderma asperellum PQ34 that was isolated from agricultural cultivation soil in Thua Thien Hue, Vietnam.

Methods: CMCase was produced by culturing T. asperellum PQ34 on Czapek-Dox medium supplemented with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) at 28ºC for 96 h at a shaking speed of 150 rpm. Enzyme activity was spectrophotometerically determined with CMC used as a substrate and the absorbance was measured at 540 nm. The molecular weight of CMCase was determined by zymogram based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with 0.2% CMC.

Results: CMCase achieved the highest activity after 4 days of culture with the optimal pH and temperature at 4 and 55°C. The enzyme maintains pH and thermal stability in the range of 4-5 and 10-40°C and the relative activity of both is more than 90%. The presence of metal ions at 5 mM such as Ca2+, Al3+, or Co2+ increased the enzyme activity up to 133%, 124%, and 217%, respectively. CMCase was stable with 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and 1 M urea, but inhibited by 5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 5% Triton-X100. Zymographic analysis showed that CMCase from T. asperellum PQ34 consists of two enzymes with a molecular weight of about 31 and 66 kDa.

Conclusion: CMCases from T. asperellum PQ34 exhibited characteristics of an acidic and thermostable enzyme. The interaction of Co2+ and CMCase resulted in a significant increase in enzyme activity, however they were strongly inhibited by 5% SDS. 

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Full Length Research Articles


Reserve Carbohydrate Metabolism in Crabtree-Negative and –Positive Yeasts at Different Carbon Sources
Tülay Turgut Genç, pages 47-51
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 Background: The fermentation of sugars into ethanol even in the presence of oxygen is referred to as the Crabtree effect. The yeast cells displaying Crabtree effect are indicated as Crabtree-positive yeast. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is Crabtree positive and Debaryomyces occidentalis is Crabtree-negative yeast which does not have Crabtree effect. The reserve carbohydrate metabolism is different in Crabtree-positive and Crabtree-negative yeast cells. The present study aimed to determine the trehalose and glycogen accumulation patterns both in Crabtree-positive and Crabtree-negative yeast species.

Methods: In this research, trehalose and glycogen contents of S. cerevisiae and D. occidentalis yeast species were examined in a time course manner in three different carbon sources: glucose, galactose and glycerol. Firstly, yeast cells were grown in rich media supplemented with glucose then all washed and switched to fresh cultures including glucose, galactose and glycerol.

Results: In S. cerevisiae yeast cells the overnight accumulated trehalose degraded very rapidly after non-fermentable carbon source replenishment, but this took place in a long time, nearly two days, in D. occidentalis yeast cells. However, whenever D. occidentalis yeast cells shifted to glycerol, all the accumulated trehalose degraded within the twelve hours. Glycogen accumulation in D. occidentalis yeast cells is lower than S. cerevisiae yeast cells both in fermentable and non-fermentable carbon sources.

Conclusion: Results indicated that glycogen and trehalose accumulation patterns are completely different in D. occidentalis than S. cerevisiae. Crabtree-negative yeast cells generally, prefer to accumulate glycogen instead of trehalose as reserve carbohydrate. But in our research we proved that Crabtree-negative yeast D. occidentalis, accumulates more trehalose than S. cerevisiae yeast cells in non-fermentable carbon sources. 

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In vitro Micropropagation of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad: an endangered medicinal plant
Arneeb Tariq, Humera Afrasiab, Fozia Farhat, pages 52-56

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 Background: The experiment describes the establishment of in vitro conditions for seed germination, micropropagation, callogenesis, organogenesis and acclimatization of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad, of family Cucurbitaceae.

Methods: In vitro grown seedlings from decontaminated seeds were micropropagated in basal MS medium at 23±2oC temperature and light intensity of 3000 Lux for 16 hours in culture room. In vitro grown nodal explants were supplemented with BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) and NAA (Naphthalene acetic acid) with basal MS (Murashige and Skoog) medium to induce multiple shoots. Indole butyric acid (IBA; 0.1 to 2.0 mg/L) was supplemented to MS medium to develop roots of micropropagated shoots. Internodes and leaves of micropropagated shoots used to induce callus in MS medium enriched with varying concentration of 2, 4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4 D; 0 to 2.0mg/L) and kinetin (KIN; 0 to 1.0mg/L). Shoot initiation from callus was tested by adding 2, 4-D (0.1 to 2.0 mg/L) and BAP (1.0 to 1.5 mg/L) in basal MS medium. Conditions were carefully monitored during the experiment. After hardening, the micropropagated plantlets were placed in open filed environment in pots filled with sand and peat moss (3:1).

Result: Surface sterilized seeds of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) showed 100% germination in regulator free medium. Significantly mature shoots (75%) from nodal explant recorded in BAP (2.0 mg/L) and NAA (1.0 mg/L) augmented MS medium. Highest number (90%) of roots per shoot explant were observed in IBA (2.0 mg/L). Leaf explants showed better response to form callus with a combination of 2, 4-D (1.0 mg/L) and KIN (1.0 mg/L) and further rise in 2, 4-D concentration caused a sharp decrease in callus formation. Shoot induction from callus cultures observed in MS medium containing 2, 4-D (2.0 mg/L) and BAP (1.5 mg/L), producing an average of 10 shoots per culture. Plants were effectively transplanted in open environment with survival rate of 85%.

Conclusion: Results indicate the successful establishment of the growth room conditions for in vitro micropropagation of the endangered medicinal plant, Citrullus colocynthis. 

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Acclimatization of drought tolerance with Somaclonal variants of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.)
Rashda Naheed, Muhammad Arfan, Fozia Farhat, Siddra Ijaz, Hamza Khalid, pages 57-62

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 Background: Sugarcane is basically a water loving crop and scarcity of water is not only affecting its overall production but its total sugar contents as well. Somaclonal variation is an intriguing phenomenon to study various genetic and cellular mechanism under in vitro conditions. The induction of somaclonal variation generates useful variability without sexual reproduction in sugarcane.

Methods: CPF-248, a drought sensitive variety was used to induce stress tolerance using somaclonal variation approach. Various combinations of callogenesis and regeneration media were used to induce soma clonal variations. The plants, thus achieved, were subjected to drought selection pressure using different concentrations of PEG, the selected plants were referred as in vitro selected putative somaclonal variants 1 & 2 (IPSV1 & IPSV2). These two plants were then subjected to acclimatize under greenhouse conditions by planting them in soil filled plastic pots. The in vitro grown seedlings named as in vitro selected putative somaclonal variants along with parent plants were subjected to drought conditions by withholding watering for 8 days. After 10 days of treatment, data for photosynthetic and biochemical attributes were recorded and subjected to comparison. The activity of antioxidants enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate and carotenoid contents was analyzed using standard protocols.

Results: A significant increase in chlorophyll ab and carotenoid contents were recorded in IPSV1 and IPSV2 compared to parent genotype. Antioxidant enzymes (SOD, APX, CAT, POD) also increased significantly in somaclonal variants and displayed tolerance under drought condition. Moreover, osmotic adjustment was observed in the form of higher rate of total free amino acid and proline contents in both somaclonal variants.

Conclusion: The finding suggests that sugarcane (CPF-248) somaclones generated through tissue culture approach are found to be drought tolerant with improved photosynthesis and antioxidant response. Further, somaclonal variant IPSVI, exhibited better response than other variant (IPSV2). 

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Hepatoprotective role of fruit extract of Terminalia arjuna in acetaminophen intoxicated mice
Saira Khan, Faiza Noor, Imran Sohail, Sarmad Imtiaz, Faiza Anum, Sana Sarmad, Shoaib Kabeer, Shahid Raza, pages 63-67

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 Background: Liver injury and dysfunction is one of the major health concerns throughout the world. Several herbal formulations are reported to exert beneficial effects on the biochemistry of the liver.

Methods: Therefore, the current project is conducted to evaluate the hepatocurative and hepatoprotective potential of Terminalia arjuna by using albino mice.

Results: The fruit extract (400 mg/Kg) of the plant showed hepatoprotective effects upon pre-treatment for 5, 10 and 15 days and later challenged with acetaminophen (400 mg/Kg) for 3 days. The results showed substantial protective properties as there was comparatively less damage to the liver. Furthermore, the fruit extract of T. arjuna also exhibited hepatocurative effects when animals were given acetaminophen (400 mg/Kg) for 3 days to damage the liver followed by the treatment with the plant extract (400 mg/Kg) for 5, 10 and 15 days. The results also indicated hepatocurative activities, as the elevated serum levels of hepatic enzymes were inclining to normal ranges in a time-dependent manner.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the fruit extract of T. arjuna possesses hepatoprotective plus hepatocurative activities. 

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Anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds of quinoa inflorescence
Iqra Haider Khan, Arshad Javaid, pages 68-72

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 Background: Chenopodium quinoa is a newly introduced drought resistant crop in Pakistan. Studies regarding the efficacy of bioactive compounds present in this plant are scarce. Therefore, the current investigation was carried out to identify the antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer compounds present in ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extract of inflorescence of C. quinoa.

Methods: Dry powdered inflorescence of the test plant was macerated with methanol and partitioned through different organic solvents on the basis of increase in polarities beginning with n-hexane followed by chloroform and ethyl acetate. GC-MS analysis was performed for the identification of bioactive constituents present in ethyl acetate fraction.

Results: The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 15 different phytochemicals. Among these, 1,2-benzedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester (15); 9,12-octadecadienoic_acid-(Z,Z) (13); 8,11-octadecadienoic_acid, methyl ester (12); hexacosanoic acid, methyl-ester (11); hexadecenoic acid,2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester (14); n-hexadecanoic acid (10); hexadecenoic-acid, methyl ester (8); 2-propenoic acid,3-[4-(acetyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl]-, methyl ester (7); 1,6,10,14,18,22-tetracosahexaen-3-ol,2,6,10,15,19,23-hexamethyl-,(all-E)-(9) and undecane (1) were present in moderate to abundant concentrations. Biological activities of the identified compounds were searched in the previous literature.

Conclusion: The present study concluded that ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic extract of the inflorescence of C. quinoa contains a diverse range of potent bioactive constituents with antimicrobial, antifungal, antibacterial, cancer preventive, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties. 

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The effect of wildfires on wood-decay fungi in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park
Nawaf I. Ibrahim, Abdel Moneim E. Sulieman, Sami Hannachi, Steven L. Stevenson, pages 73-77

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 Background: In late November and early December of 2019, wildfires occurred over portions of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. More than 4,000 ha were affected by the wildfires. The objective of the research reported herein was to access the impact of these wildfires on the assemblages of wood-decay fungi associated with the study areas in the park.

Methods: The investigated fungi were confined to two study areas; the first subjected to a relatively high intensity burn and the second subjected to a relatively low intensity burn. In addition to specimens of fungi obtained in the field, small pieces of coarse woody debris were assembled, brought back to the laboratory and placed in plastic chambers for incubation and kept moist. Over the course of two months, fruiting bodies appearing in these incubation chambers were observed and collected. All specimens from both the field and incubation chambers were identified from sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA.

Results: A total of 31 different taxa were identified along with nine taxa reported previously as unknown and uncultured. However, almost all of these records were from the study area subjected to the relatively low intensity burn.

Conclusion: The relatively high intensity burn site was almost completely devoid of wood-decay fungi. 

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Decreased Expression of Alpha Smooth Muscle Actin and Desmin Contributes to the Protection of Vitamin D3 against Diclofenac Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats
Sahar Youssef, Marwa Salah, pages 78-84

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 Background: Diclofenac is widely prescribed for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions but it also has some harmful effects on the kidney. The current study was conducted to elucidate the possible mechanism of action of diclofenac sodium on kidney, and if it is affected by the addition of vitamin D.

Methods: Rats were divided into 4 equal groups. G1 was the control group that received no treatment; G2 was treated with intramuscular injection of vitamin D (1,000 IU/kg, 3days/week); G3 was treated with intramuscular injection of diclofenac sodium (3.6 mg/kg, 3 days/week) and G4 treated simultaneously with both diclofenac (3.6 mg/kg, 3 days/week) and vitamin D (1,000 IU/kg, 3days/week) intramuscularly for four weeks. Kidneys sections were stained with H&E, Masson’s trichrome and immunohistochemical staining against α –SMA and desmin followed by the morphometric and statistical analysis.

Results: Kidney sections from diclofenac sodium treated group showed degeneration and necrosis, small or atrophic glomeruli with dilated Bowman’s space and some of the renal tubular lining cells appeared vacuolated with small pyknotic nuclei. Renal fibrosis was confirmed by significant increase in collagen fibers, α –SMA and podocytes injury by significant increase of desmin.  However, in diclofenac- vitamin D treated group significantly the expression of α –SMA and desmin were decreased.

Conclusion: The current data suggested that vitamin D might play a protectant role against diclofenac induced kidney injury in rats through the preservation of the histological architecture of renal corpuscles, renal cortical tubules and down regulation of collagen, α – SMA and desmin. 

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Study on significant changes in calcium, phosphorus and thyroid hormones level in hypothyroidism patients
Nida Zahra, Ahmad Ali, Saima Kousar, Arif Malik, Ahmad Zaheer, Imran Riaz Malik, pages 85-88

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 Background: Thyroid hormones have a vital role in metabolism of lipids, cholesterol etc. They also have an important role in phosphorous and calcium homeostasis by their direct effect on bone turnover. The objective of present study was to find the significant differences of T3, T4, TSH, lipid profile (HDL, LDL, vLDL, TG, Cholesterol), electrolytes and minerals (sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphorus, calcium) between control group and hypothyroidism patients.

Methods: Blood samples were collected from 72 patients and 12 control after their consent. Serum was used to determine biochemical parameters using standard protocol. Data obtained were statistically analyzed using “t” student test.

Results: The level of TSH was significantly higher in female and male hypothyroidism patients (p < 0.01) as compared to control and it was inversely related to the level of T3 and T4. Patients with hypothyroidism have increased level of LFTs profile especially cholesterol and Triglycerides levels both in males and females. In hypothyroidism, the level of glomerulus filtrate rate decrease especially sodium level but thyroid hormonal disturbance does not affect serum electrolyte level. The serum phosphorus and calcium levels change significantly in thyroid disorder.

Conclusion: Hypothyroidism is associated with increased TSH level and decreased T3 and T4 levels but does not appear to be associated with abnormalities in lipid profile. The serum phosphorus and calcium levels change significantly in thyroid disorder, Treatments of its primary causes should be given and if it is possible minerals can be added to avoid further bone complications. 

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Public awareness of the coronary artery disease and its risk factors in the population of Hail region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study
S.M.A.Shahid, Tarig A.N Ginawi, Mohd Adnan Kausar, Mohammad Kuddus, Fahaad S.H. Alenazi, Ahmed Hameed Alreshidi, Jaser Sultan Alshamari, Dhari Abdulkarim Alquwaiay, Wael Saleh Alanazi, Abdulaziz Muflih Alghaithi, Rian Mohamed Bnyan Al Amri,  Saleh Ali Saleh Alsanea, Mohammed Rubayyi Alruwaytie, Khalil Ibrahim Alanazi, Hussam Salem Alshammari, Mohd Saeed, pages 89-92

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 Background: Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is a severe cardiovascular complication prevalent in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The risk factors of this disease are so high that it became one of the major causes of mortality among middle-aged individuals. This study aimed to investigate the degree of awareness about risk factors for CAD among the Hail region population.  

Methods: The study was carried out in the Hail region, Saudi Arabia, from April 2020 to May 2020. Data collected from five hundred and thirty-seven participants participated through an online survey. The process of selection of participants was through volunteer testing and an online review poll that was disseminated to them to complete. No limitations on age or sex were applied to the surveys.

Results: Awareness of TV watching (88.5%), smoking (87.9%), lack of physical activities (78.4%) and family history of CAD (74.7%) as the leading cause of CAD has a notable higher percentage among the studied population whereas the family history of diabetes mellitus (51.6%), having diabetes mellitus (57.7%), family history of hypertension (65.7%) and family history of hyperlipidemia (69.1%) have the lowest percentages. Regarding the gender, the male participants have the poorest awareness degrees about risk factors for the CAD.

Conclusion: The study revealed that the family history of hyperlipidemia, Family history of DM, having DM and family history of hypertension have the poorest degrees of awareness of the risk factors for CAD among the studied population. 

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Effect of Plant Growth Hormones on Shoot and Root Regeneration in Rose under In Vitro Conditions
Mehran Ali Chhalgri, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Ghulam Shah Nizamani, Shafquat Yasmeen, Imtiaz Ahmed Khan, Muhammad Mahran Aslam, Asghar Ali Rajpar, Tayyaba, Faiza Nizamani, Muhammad Rashid Nizamani, Rashid Iqbal, Mah Jabeen Panhwar, Mohammad Aquil Siddiqui, pages 93-97

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 Background: Rose is a commercially important shrub. This research aimed to observe the influence of different plant growth hormones on development of shoots and roots of Rosa Indica Lin tissue culture.

Methods: Various concentrations of N6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) were used in the study. The different concentrations of BAP (2.00, 3.00, and 4.00 mg l-1) and IAA (2.00 and 3.00 mg l-1) were tested for shoot induction. While varying concentrations of IAA and IBA were analyzed for root proliferation.

Results: The results of the study indicated that the fastest shoot initiation (17.77 days), the highest number of shoots bottle-1 (3.55), the maximum shoot length (4.72 cm), and the utmost number of leaves bottle-1 (53.67) were observed on MS media containing 3.00 mg l-1 BAP, 3.00 mg l-1 IAA, and 30 g l-1 sugar, while the highest number of shoots bottle-1 were produced under MS + 2.00 mg l-1 BAP + 3.00 mg l-1 IAA + 30 g l-1 sugar. Regarding root induction, the maximum number of roots (4.67) and root length (2.60 cm) were observed under half strength MS media supplemented with 30 g l-1 sugar.

Conclusion: The study suggested that MS media containing 3.00 mg l-1 BAP and IAA could be used for tissue culturing rose plants. For root induction, half-strength MS media, along with sugar, could be used. The study gives an insight into potential media compositions for the propagation of rose. The suggested media can have promising uses in commercial multiplication of this important plant. 

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Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Salmonella spp. from Chicken purchased at Wad Madani City, Gezira State, Sudan
Abdel Moneim E. Sulieman, Farha E. Dafallah, Eitimad H. Abdel-Rahman, Nawaf I. Alshammari, Sohair A. Shommo, Salwa.E.Ibrahim, pages 98-102

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 Background: Salmonella is a potential human pathogen that causes salmonellosis, a food-borne disease. Addressing these major food safety and public health issues with effective monitoring of food-borne pathogens and dietary measures.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the local markets of Alsug Alkabeer (AB), Alsug Ashabi (AK), and Alsug Alsageer (AS) sites in Wad Madani state, Sudan to detect and assess Salmonella infection in raw and cooked chicken samples.

Results: The results showed that the maximum number of different Salmonella species was recovered from raw and cooked specimens of chicken obtained from AB, AK and AS which were 6.5, 4.4, and 4cfu/g, respectively. In addition, Salmonella spp. in the locally reared chicken is significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of farm poultry. On the other hand, the highest Salmonella count was recorded in AS, AK and AB egg samples which were 5.9, 3.5, and 2.3cfu/g, respectively. Interestingly, eggs from local sources of chicken had significantly (p < 0.05) higher numbers of Salmonella spp. compared to those from farm sources. Six species of Salmonella were described, namely: Salmonella typhi, S. cheersS. arizonaeS. enteritidis, S. pullorum, and S. gallinarum.

Conclusion: High occurrence of Salmonella spp. in this study might be attributed to the low hygienic measures in the poultry retail markets during slaughtering and/or handling processes. Further studies are required and should be conducted within Gezira state to assess food safety. 

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