Volume 1, Issue 2

Advancements in Life Sciences, volume 1, issue 2

Published online: 25-Feb-2014
ISSN 2310-5380 


Commentaries and Correspondence:

Copy Number Variation in Forensic Science
Muhammad Ilyas, Muhammad Israr, Zia ur Rahman, pages 71-72

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Short Communication:

Protein toxicity in Kotri Paint industry workers exposed to Phthalic Anhydride and Trimellitic Anhydride 
Sumera Qureshi, Allah Bux Ghanghro, Shaista Khan, Ambreen Shah, pages 73-78
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Background: Protein plays a significant role in the regulation of metabolism for normal functioning in human body. SITE area, Kotri paint industry workers are at high risk of hypersensitivity, sensitization of the respiratory tract (including asthma), skin diseases and allergy. Reactive Low molecular weight organic acid anhydrides (OAAs) like trimelitic anhydride (TMA) and phthalic anhydride (PA) are extensively used in local paint industries of SITE AREA, Kotri, Sindh – Pakistan. These both anhydrides may easily bind with high molecular weight proteins by forming complex (adducts) leading to metabolic disorders among the exposed workers. Methods: There is no study to differentiate protein status of workers compared with normal healthy group as compare in the past. In this regard, the total protein was determined in intravenous blood samples obtained from the exposed workers to TMA and PA with control group clinically by Microlab300 (Kit Method System). Result: There is a significant decrease of protein level in paint industry workers as compared with healthy subjects, which never had exposed to TMA and PA. Conclusion: These both allergenic organic acid anhydrides like TMA and PA may be associated for changing protein function status after forming complex (adduct) by long exposure at work. SITE Area, Kotri Paint workers may at high risk of asthma, exposed to TMA and PA.

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Review Article:

Dual properties of Nigella Sativa: Anti-oxidant and Pro-oxidant
Nadia Wajid, Fatima Ali, Muhammad Tahir, Abdul Rehman, Azib Ali, pages 79-88
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Abstract: Nigella sativa (NS) or black seed has been used for the treatment of various disorders for centuries. Experimentally, seed extract or thymoquinone (TQ) which is the main constituent of its oil has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic and anticancer properties. Interestingly, the published data demonstrates that NS acts as anti-oxidant in various diseases simultaneously, it behaves like a pro-oxidant for cancer cells. Here, we have summarized the dual properties of this medicinal plant. Current review is systematic, based on search from PubMed. Pubmed data indicated that NS has both anti-oxidant and pro-oxidant properties in different cell types hence should be used carefully because it acts as a cytoprotective or cytotoxic agent in inflammatory and malignant conditions respectively.

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Full Length Research Articles:

Occurrence of HCV genotypes in different age groups of patients from Lahore, Pakistan
Amna Rasheed, Sajjad Ullah, Sajid Naeem, Muhammad Zubair, Waseem Ahmad, Zahid Hussain, pages 89-95

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Background: Hepatitis C virus is a small, enveloped single stranded, positive sense RNA virus. Different genotypes are distributed in different geographical areas of the world. Determination of HCV genotype is a powerful tool for the treatment of chronic and acute liver disease. Methods: The present study was carried out to find the occurrence of different HCV genotypes in the city of Lahore, a populous city of Pakistan from January 2010 to December 2010. Blood sample of patients positive for anti HCV by ELISA as well as HCV by PCR were collected and plasma was separated. HCV viral RNA load was analyzed in these samples using Real Time PCR. Qiagen HCV mini kit for RNA extraction and Qiagen HCV amplification kit for PCR amplification were used. Amplicons were subjected to HCV genotyping using Third Wave Technology. Results: Among 489 patients, 211 (43.1%) patients were males and 278 (56.9%) were females. Occurrence of HCV in the age group of 36-45 years was 32.5 %. Occurrence of HCV genotype 1 was 9.6% (47), genotype 3a was 80.77% (395), genotype 3h was 1.0% (5) , genotype 4 was 4.9% (24), co-infection of genotypes 1 & 2 was 0.2% (01), co-infection of genotypes 1 & 3 was 0.6% (03) and co-infection genotypes 1 & 4 was 0.4% (02). Conclusion: HCV genotype 3a is most prevalent HCV genotype in subjected population during said duration with most infected people from 26 to 35 years of age. Female population is having more of HCV infection as compared to males.

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Comparative study to assess coagulation abnormalities in breast cancer

Toraiz Ahmed, Rana Shakil Ahmed, Muhammad Usman Basharat, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq, Shakira Sadiq Gill, Abdur Rehman Khawaja, Abdul Basit, Arman Khan, Muhammad Farhan Khan, pages 96-103
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Background: Coagulation abnormalities such as thrombosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) are the major factors that play a major role in breast cancer. In this study, coagulation abnormalities were assessed in breast cancer patients to help the clinician in early detection of DIC and management of patients at different stages of breast cancer. Methods: 75 patients were enrolled in the study, 50 were from case group (breast cancer patients) and 25 were selected as control group subjects used to compare the results. All of these subjects undergone, General Hematological analysis i.e. differential leukocyte count hemoglobin, platelets count and total leukocyte count were performed on each of the samples collected from the subjects and Specific Hematological analysis i.e. Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT), Fibrinogen Assay, Prothrombin Time (PT), D-Dimer Detection and Fibrin Degradation Products (FDPs). Results: PT was found to be comparable in patients with breast cancer when compared with controls. Difference between control group (II) and subjects with breast cancer (I) was non-significant, fibrinogen level was found to be significantly increased (p < 0.01) in patients with different stages of breast cancer when compared with controls. FDPs were found to be significantly increased (p< 0.01) in patients of breast cancer when compared with control group. These increased levels of FDPs may be due to enhanced fibrinolysis. D-Dimers were also found to be significantly increased (p < 0.01) in patients with breast cancer when compared with controls. Conclusion: Patients with breast cancer were associated with compensated DIC state including normal PT and APTT level but increased fibrinogen and platelets count as compared to the controls. Detection of D-Dimers offers a differential analysis over other laboratory tests for DIC.

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In-vitro production of Cabbage and Cauliflower
Zahida Qamar, Idrees Ahmad Nasir, Ghulam Zahra Jahangir, Tayyab Husnain, pages 112-118

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Background: Synthetic seeds of Cauliflower cultivar Chillout were developed by encapsulating mature somatic embryos in neutral gel media. Somatic embryos were obtained by optimizing callus and cell suspension cultures of cauliflower. Methods: Friable, yellowish embryogeniccalli was obtained on MS media supplemented with 2 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.5mg/L BAP using hypocotyl as explants while calli was regenerated in media comprising of 5mg/L BAP, 2mg/L Kinetin and 6mg/L GA3. Somatic embryogenesis was induced in cell suspension culture where auxin was removed in successive steps that led to conversion of globular cells into heart/torpedo stage and finally into cotyledonary/somatic embryo stage. The mature somatic embryos were encapsulated by mixing mature cell suspension with sodium alginate and 100mM calcium chloride at the ratio 1:4. Results: Germination efficiency of synthetic seeds was decreased to almost 50% after 12 weeks of storage at 4◦C followed by rapid decrease to zero% after 16 weeks. Developed synthetic seeds germinated into complete plantlets when placed at neutral gel media. It was also observed that cauliflower plantlets from synthetic seeds survived successfully when transferred in soil. Conclusion: In this study, it is shown and concluded that cauliflower synthetic seeds can be considered a promising step for their direct use in-vitro.

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