Latest Contents

Advancements in Life Sciences, volume 9, issue 4Cover; Volume 9, Issue 4
ISSN 2310-5380 

IN THIS ISSUE

This 4th issue of the 9th volume has featured 34 multidisciplinary articles including 2 commentaries, 5 review articles, 4 short communications and 23 research papers of authors from 10 countries covering aspects from different stems of life science. Enjoy reading!

 

Short Communications


Embryotoxic effects of Ciprofloxacin in Chicken: A potential risk for antibiotic resistance
Bibi Nazia Murtaza, Sidra tul Muntaha, Muhammad Siraj, Mujaddad Ur Rehman, Aneela Rehman, pages 380-383
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 Background: Ciprofloxacin is considered as a relatively safe drug having broad spectrum antimicrobial activity in humans and animals including poultry, besides its reported cartilage damage in children and debated use in pregnancy.

Methods: Current study is designed to highlight the embryotoxic effects of ciprofloxacin in chicken. In the study fertilized eggs were categorized in 5 groups incubated at standard parameters. On 4th day of incubation, group1 and 2 were injected with Ciprofloxacin (30 and 60 mg/egg respectively). Group 3 was pinched with needle only and group 4 was injected with sterilized saline solution. Group 5 was kept as a control, without any injection or pinching.

Results: On the 18th day of incubation, the growth of embryos was monitored. Hemorrhages on neck and head areas were noticed in treated group treated with 60 mg/egg. Low body weight along with the defective beak and nail formation was noticed. No other clear external deformity was observed in any treated and normal groups. It can be inferred that embryotoxic effects of ciprofloxacin cannot be ignored. High or repeated doses can reduce the turnover number of successful hatching chicks and the consumption of antibiotics treated chicken can lead to the development of antimicrobial resistance in humans.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that recommended dose limit is very important to avoid the harmful effect of antibiotics and chemicals. Embryotoxic effect of ciprofloxacin cannot be ignored. Use of antibiotic/s in poultry and live stocks should be carefully monitored and judged on medical basis; also its use for growth promotion should be discontinued. 

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Genotoxic Response of Oreochromis niloticus Exposed to Tertiary Mixture of Pesticides
Faiza Ambreen, Mehmood Ahmed Husnain Hashmi, Sidra Abbas, Safina Kouser, Fariha Latif, Muhammad Javed, pages 384-390
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 Background: At present the aquatic habitats of Pakistan become heavily polluted due to presence of heavy metals and pesticides. This research was carried out to check the percentage of DNA damage, Genetic Damage Index and Cumulative Tail Length of comets formed in the erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus following exposure to a tertiary mixture of pesticides (chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and bifenthrin) with the Comet assay.

Methods: Acute toxicity (96-hour LC50) of chlorpyrifos + endosulfan + bifenthrin mixture was determined for Oreochromis niloticus (180-day old), and then four sublethal concentrations (1/3rd, 1/4th, 1/5th , and 1/6th  of the LC50) were calculated. To control the possibility of temperature variation, fingerlings of O. niloticus were treated with four experimental pesticides concentrations used for duration of 90 days under constant conditions of laboratory (with negative and positive control). On day 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, and 84 fish peripheral blood cells were collected following exposure to assess DNA damage.

Results: DNA damage was observed to be statistically significant (p<0.05) throughout the exposure period due to the various test concentrations. In fish erythrocytes, a dose/concentration-dependent response was observed, with the greatest DNA damage occurring at 1/3rd of the LC50 exposure. Comparing DNA damage in Oreochromis niloticus peripheral blood erythrocytes across all sampling days revealed a continuous rise in the quantity of damaged DNA with increase in time of exposure.

Conclusion: Present investigation represented an unprecedented approach to study genotoxic effects of pesticides on fish. The widespread application of pesticides (chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, bifenthrin) in agriculture sector exerts adverse effects on various non-target organisms via trophic transfer that ultimately pose a serious threat for human beings. Current findings suggested minimized and sensible use of pesticides to avoid genetic threats to aquatic fauna and to maintain sustainable agriculture and aquaculture. 

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Evaluation of stress and its clinical correlation among the students of Allied Health Sciences
Zeeshan Haider, Muhammad Umer Khan, Ayza Yasin, Talha Abbas, Mahnoor Ahsan, Inam Ur Rehman, Sadia Abbas Khan, Muhammad Usman Ghani, Muhammad Tayyab Tariq, Raima Rehman, Haleema Sadia, pages  391-394
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 Background: Stress is a key indicator affecting the psychological and physical health of students throughout the world. The current study was planned to find out depression, stress, and anxiety and their impact on obesity and different clinical markers among the students of Allied Health Sciences.

Methods: To assess stress, anxiety, and depression levels; the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS- 21) was utilized. A total of 1446 individuals participated in the current research project. After assessing the BMI of students, a blood sample of two hundred and two (202) obese students were collected. Spectrophotometry, latex agglutination, and flow cytometry were employed to determine the different clinical markers.

Results: Stress was found in 63.10% population, while depression was 59.70% and the prevalence of anxiety was 61.90%. After analysis of the blood samples of students, a significant increase was seen in cholesterol and HDL, while VLDL was moderately decreased. LDL, triglycerides, and CBC showed no significant change. Random blood glucose was normal, and CRP was also found negative in all the participants. There was no significant correlation between serum lipid profile and CBC parameters during stress, anxiety, and depression in students.

Conclusion: A significant stress level was found among the students of Allied Health Sciences. It is a dire need of time to be focused on the mental health of students. Psychological counseling should be provided in the institutes for the mental well-being of the students. 

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Determination of total antioxidant content of methanolic extracts of Cynara scolymusEchinacea purpurea and Portulaca oleracea
Dhiya Altememy, Mahmoud Bahmani, Fadhil Hussam, Yasir Salam Karim, Mustafa M. Kadhim, Waleed K. Khawaja, Noora M. Hameed, Nathera Hussin Alwan, Mohammad Darvishi, pages 395-400
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 Background: The unique properties of medicinal plants particularly their effects on human health have attracted the attention of many researchers. The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants is a strong reason to use them in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts of Cynara scolymusEchinacea purpurea   and Portulaca oleracea. Aerial parts of C. scolymusE. purpurea and P. oleracea were dried and ground.

Methods: Then, plant samples were prepared using homogenizing plant powders in methanol solution. Finally, the total   antioxidant capacity of the plants was assessed by ferric iron reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay.

Results: The results revealed that the total antioxidant capacity was found as 3.45, 1.16 and 1.68 mmol Fe2+/L for C. scolymusE. purpurea and P. oleracea, respectively. Based on our results, C. scolymusE. purpurea and P. oleracea showed a potent antioxidant activity.

Conclusion: It is recommended that utilization of C. scolymusE. purpurea and P. oleracea in food and pharmaceutical industries could possibly possess beneficial health effects.

Keywords: Antioxidant Activity; Medicinal Plants; Cynara scolymusEchinacea purpureaPortulaca oleracea 

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 Review Articles


Mathematical Understanding of Sequence Alignment and Phylogenetic Algorithms: A Comprehensive Review of Computation of Different Methods
Rashid Saif, Sadia Nadeem, Alishba Khaliq, Saeeda Zia, Ali Iftekhar, pages 401-411
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 Pairwise sequence alignment is one of the ways to position two biological sequences to identify regions of similarity that may suggest the functional, structural and evolutionary relationship among proteins and nucleic acids. There are two strategies in pairwise alignment: local sequence alignment (Smith Waterman algorithm) and global sequence alignment (Needleman Wunsch algorithm). In the prior approach, two sequences that may or may not be related, are aligned to find regions of local similarities in large sequences, whereas in the later one, two sequences of same length are aligned to identify their conserved regions. Moreover, similarities and divergence between biological sequences also has to be rationalized and visualized in the form of phylogenetic trees, so the dendrogram construction approaches were developed and divided into distance-based and character-based methods. In this review article, different algorithms of sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction were meditated with examples and compared by looking into the background computation for the better understanding of the algorithms, which will be helpful for molecular biology, computational sciences and mathematics/statistics novices. Phylogenetic trees are constructed through various methods, some are computationally robust but does not provide precise evolutionary insight, whereas some provide accurate evolutionary understandings, but computationally exhaustive and cumbersome. So, there is a need to understand the implicit mathematics and intricate computation behind the dendrogram construction for improving the existing algorithms and developing new methods. 

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Deciphering the Potential Therapeutic Intervention Points of 2019-nCoV: A Pharmacological Perspective
Asma Khurshid, Rashid Amin, Athar Aziz, Omema Ahmed, Mahmoud E. F. Abdel-Haliem, pages  412-428
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 The emerging and re-emergence of viral outbreaks in the history of mankind has always pose severe global intimidation to public health and economy. The debilitating effects of 2019-nCoV (2019 novel coronavirus) outbreak has swiftly spread worldwide due to its highly contagious nature with severe risk of respiratory tract infections and higher mortality rate, necessitating the urgent need for the production of effective vaccine and potential therapeutic agents. The active evolution of SARS-CoV-2 strain in different population and environment strive immense challenge against anti-viral therapeutic development based on viral pathogenicity. The potential FDA drugs are evaluated based on their known safety and efficacy with exceptional pharmacokinetic profiles for the treatment of nCoV-2019. Existing knowledge related to MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV epidemic has provided a better understanding to explore purposeful therapeutics strategies against novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). To limited extend, the ongoing promising and hopeful treatments includes convalescent plasma therapy, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, ACE inhibitors, TMPRSS2 inhibitors, hydroxychloroquine, interferon, ribavirin, tocilizumab, and corticosteroids however clinical efficacy of some of them need to be validated in randomized clinical trials (RCTs). The global struggle to make a protected and successful Coronavirus immunization is finally proving to be fruitful. Although challenges such as strain variation resistant, possible side effects, adequate supply of vaccines to all countries and limited availability of second dose still diverting the option of possible efficacious therapeutics strategies to work alongside with vaccine development with improved efficacy and safety profile. This review is focused on the potential advancement in therapeutic approaches with possible repurposing of the available drugs and explores the current status of available vaccines with hope that these strategies found to be cogent in controlling SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. 

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The Contagious Nature of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Variant and Vaccine Efficacy
Shahab Ahmad Khan, Ijaz Ahmad, Wajid Khan, Hayat Khan, Abdullah, Sadiq Akbar, pages 429-436
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 Since the first coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak, variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have continued to dominate the global population. The repeated waves of emerging variants, each replacing the previous one with a greater rate of transmissibility and mutations, are the primary cause of the global pandemic. Public health concerns dramatically rose when a highly mutated variant, omicron (B.1.1.529) emerged in late 2021. Omicron has more than 50 mutations, and over 30 mutations are in their spike protein that contributes to the virologic characteristics of the variant. Omicron is more contagious than previously reported SARS-CoV-2 strains and can re-infect people who have already contracted other SARS-CoV-2 infections. The variant has acquired a unique immune escape mechanism against monoclonal antibodies and vaccines. Currently, there are no specific therapeutic drugs or vaccines available to prevent omicron infection and sub lineages emergence. The review was designed to search the recent research or literature papers and compile the most pertinent data on the virologic characteristics of the variant of concern. The study reviewed and discussed the present prevalence, infectivity, dominance, immune evasion, therapeutic options, vaccine efficacy, and the future prospect of the omicron variant. Omicron variant has become a global public health concern due to the emergence of highly mutated sub lineages. Developing variant-specific therapeutic drugs or vaccines is desirable to prevent the spread of these contagious variants globally. 

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Personalized Medicine; a Potential Therapy for Cystic Fibrosis
Aqsa Ashraf, Muhammad Usman Ghani, Muhammad Umer Khan, Hafiz Muzzammel Rehman, Mahmood ul Hassan, Zohair Mehdi, pages 437-445
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 Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disorder caused by mutations in CFTR gene that codes for Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane-conductance Receptor anion channel. It is an autosomal recessive disease which affects the cells that secrete sweat, mucous and digestive juice, making these fluids thick and sticky, thus plugging ducts and tubes of various organs. The CF mutations are classified into various classes (class I, II, III, IV, V and VI) based on the cellular phenotype and complexity of mutants. The knowledge and understanding of biology and mechanisms of defects that underlie Cystic fibrosis paved a way to the development of different therapeutic approaches for these mutation classes. Ivacaftor first CFTR potentiator (FDA approved in 2012) is mostly used for Class III and IV mutations. Trials in patients with homozygous F508del mutation, a most common type of CF mutation that involves protein processing defects, showed no improvement with Ivacaftor alone, therefore, a double-combination therapy involving potentiator-corrector i.e., Ivacaftor-Lumacaftor got approval in 2015 to treat patients homozygous for F508del mutation. Then Ivacaftor-Tezacaftor (corrector) combination therapy was approved in 2018 which showed improved tolerability as compared to lumacaftor. In 2019, Trikfta, a triple combination therapy, came into light. It increases CFTR activity and is substantially considered to work more effectively in patients homozygous for F508del mutation. Studies and clinical trials reveal the outperformance of Trikafta in other available therapies in terms of respiratory symptoms, lungs functionality and quality of life on a whole. 

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Role of Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors in Renal Colic Pain Reduction and Improvement: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials
Mehdi Mohammadian Amiri, Shaimaa Hameed Fayyadh, Rosario Mireya Romero Parra, Ali Hussein Demin Al-Khafaji, Munther Abosaooda, Mohammad Darvishi, Sepidehalsadat Emadichashmi, pages 446-452
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 Renal colic is an irritating condition that develops after obstruction of the ureter. Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors are types of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that have beneficial role in treatment various diseases. Hence, this systematic review summarizes the current knowledge about the role of selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors as painkiller in renal colic pain management. The present systematic review was conducted according to the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statements. Until September 2022, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases were searched using the relevant keywords including “Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors”, “Parecoxib”, “Celecoxib”, “Rofecoxib”, “Renal Colic Pain” and “Ureteral Colic Pain”. Of 64 identified records through database searching, 6 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected for this systematic review. The sample size in RCTs were between 53 and 338. The range of subject’s age was from 18 to 69. Overall, the evidence of this review revealed that the selective COX-2 inhibitors particularly celecoxib and parecoxib could alleviate renal colic pain in most of the studies through decreasing relevant pain score. Overall, selective COX-2 inhibitors seem to be effective in alleviating renal colic pain. However, further high quality assessments are required for demonstrating therapeutic role of selective COX-2 inhibitors against renal colic pain. 

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Commentaries and Correspondence


Marine Life & Fish Management an Effective Tool of Blue Economy of Pakistan
Prof. Dr. Sajid Mehmood Shahzad, pages 453-457

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Towards Building Blue Life Science Economy
Prof. Dr. Sajid Mehmood Shahzad, pages 458-461

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Full Length Research Articles


Synteny of Cotton SSR Markers Genomes Paves the Way for Resistance Against Black Root Rot Disease in Cotton
Trinh Ngoc Ai, Anh Phu Nam Bui, 462-466
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 Background: Black root rot disease is documented for substantial reducing cotton yield and fiber quality. The isolation of candidate resistant genes in tetraploid genome AADD cotton species (2n=4x=52) remains challenging in the absence of research of black root rot resistance on progenitor DD genome diploid cotton. In this study, by exploiting Phytozome database, a comparative map of the black root rot-resistance quantitative trait loci in DD genome was constructed.

Methods: Simple sequence repeats markers associated with these three quantitative trait loci in the AA genome were used as “anchored-probes” frameworks for establishing relationships between the two cotton genomes AA and DD.

Results: Our findings showed that there was conserved orders among mapped simple sequence repeats markers on AA genome and the physical map of these simple sequence repeats markers on DD genome.

Conclusion: It was suggested that the syntenic loci on chromosome 2, 7 and 11 on DD genome could harbor the resistance gene against the black root rot disease. This study could serve as a fundamental step in isolating and introducing the resistance gene against black root rot into elite cotton cultivars. 

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Influence of In-ovo Administration of Electrolyte on Eggs of Broiler Breeder During Perinatal Period and its Impact on Subsequent Broiler Performance
Khwaja Yasir Imtiaz, Nasir Mukhtar, Arfan Yousaf, Javed Iqbal, Tanveer Ahmad, 467-472

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 Background: The perinatal period (final some days of pre-hatch to initial some days of post-hatch) is mainly critical moment during the growth of hatchling because it is a evolutionary  time during which the hatchling undertakes catabolic, anabolic and physiological transfers from the consumption of egg components to external diet. Though, with the present endeavor of viable hatcheries as well as in view of instance to shift and release of hatchling to poultry farms, the hatchlings are unavoidably displayed to delay rationing from 48 to72 hrs. Consequently, tardy dieting, hatchling undergo deprivation as well as allocate the restricted deposits of nutrition food substances for maintenance of temperature modulation as well as anabolism & catabolism that hampers growth performance. In-ovo injection of nutrient (like, electrolytes) during last period of incubation can be applied as an approach to overcome above mentioned constraints.

Methods: A total 240 broiler breeder (Ross-308) fertile eggs were set in incubator trays representing 60 eggs for each treatment. A 200-μL electrolyte mixture solution (comprising NaCl 3.5g, KCl1.5g, Na3C6H5O7 2.9g and dextrose 20g) with volumes of 100, 500 or 1000ml insertion treatment as well as non-injected control were incorporated during this trial. The mixtures of electrolytes solutions with different concentration is used in all treatments with dose of 200-μL into amniotic fluid of hatching eggs at day 18 in hatchery, and subsequent hatchability, blood profile and post-hatch performance were examined.

Results: The results showed that none of the injections exhibited substantial (p > 0.05) influences on hatch rate or body weight (BW) at hatch, 3d as well as10d post hatch. Likewise, plasma refractive index (PRI), plasma triglyceride as well as glucose contents at d 3 & 10 were not influenced (p > 0.05) through any insertion treatments. Body weight gain (BWG), feed consumption and feed conversion ratio (FCR) throughout period at 0–32 weeks were also not influenced (p > 0.05) by in-ovo administration of the upgraded electrolyte mixture.

Conclusion: This study envisaged that tested electrolyte mixture fluids were showed safe and sound for the incipient and hatchlings. It may be proposed that electrolyte mixtures possess ability intended for usage in blend with other electrolytes, nutrition food substances as well as encourages to the viable insertion of broiler hatching embryos for the advancement of incipient and initial post-hatch chick growth as well as advancement.  

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Effect of Cadmium and Copper on Morphological and Physiological Parameters of Stevia rebaudiana Bert. Under in Vitro Conditions
Afshan Shahzadi, Ayishm Altaf, Humera Afrasiab, 473-482

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 Background: Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a popular non-caloric sweetener being used all over the world for its anti-diabetic properties. Stevia contains phytochemical compounds known as diterpene glycosides that helps to reduce blood sugar, cholesterol, and blood pressure.  In vitro raised cultures are considered as an efficient way to produce essential secondary metabolites, especially through elicitation. This study aims to optimize culture conditions for the large-scale production of these economically significant metabolites using abiotic elicitors.

Methods: Apical shoot, nodes as well as leaf explants from Stevia mother plants were used for micropropagation and callogenesis respectively. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different cytokinins and auxins alone or in combinations were tried for obtaining the maximum yield of calli and plantlets. The calli and plantlets were subjected to different concentrations of copper sulphate and cadmium chloride. After 40 days of treatment, the data was recorded for morphological characters of elicitor-treated plants and calli. Chlorophyll content and antioxidant activity using DPPH assay were performed using treated leaves and calli extracts.

Results: Among all the cytokinins tried for micropropagation, BAP at 0.5 mg/L in MS medium proved to be the best with 100% response by inducing 34 and 40 shoots/culture within 12 days of inoculation from shoot tip and nodal explants, respectively. For rooting, MS medium containing 0.6 mg/L of IBA was best producing 15-17 roots/culture within 10 days. Green friable and embryogenic calli was obtained in MS medium containing 1.0 mg/L TDZ with 0.1 mg/L NAA from leaf explants. A significant increase was observed in the elicitors-treated calli and plantlets biomass, chlorophyll content as well as antioxidant potential as compared to the control.

Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the cytokinins and auxins at lower concentrations gave significant results for micropropagation and callogenesis. Further, elicitation with copper sulphate and cadmium chloride has improved the biomass and antioxidant activity of calli and plantlets.  

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Assessment of Morphoanatomical Modifications in Cucurbita pepo L. in Response to Combined Drought and Nickel Stress
Saira Bano, Syeda Anjum Tahira, Shafiq ur Rehman, Shaheena Umbreen, Saba Younas, Sana Tahir, Muhammad Ibrahim, Sidra Abdul Ghani, 483-489

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 Background: Nickel (Ni) is a toxic heavy metal and causes human health risks as well as plant abnormalities. The present study aimed to determine morpho-anatomical features of Cucurbita pepo L. var. fastigata under combined drought and Ni stress in greenhouse experiment.

Methods: Seedlings were treated with four irrigation levels to induce drought stress 14 ml, 11.2 ml, 8.4 ml and 5.6 ml (abbreviated as S0, S1, S2 and S3) along with 25 ppm of Nickel.

Results: The results were analyzed after 5th and 10th days and data revealed that seed germination rate and stem diameter was significantly (P≤ 0.05) increased while stem length, root length, root diameter, the number of secondary roots, leaf area, fresh weight, and dry weight were decreased. Among anatomical characteristics epidermis, xylem, phloem tissues, cortex, trichomes, medullary rays, endodermis, pericycle, palisade, mesophyll cells, and stem mid rib were adversely affected under water stress (S1 and S2) while plants under combined Ni stress showed significant (P≤ 0.05) reduction in cortex diameter, and increase in epidermis thickness, vascular bundles size except for S3 treatment level.

Conclusion: It was concluded that combined drought and Ni stress positively affected the morphological features (roots, stem length, and leaf area) of the Cucurbita pepo plant as compared to separate water and Ni stress, preventing plant wilting.  

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The Influence of Stationary and exponential Growth Phase of Probiotic Lactobacilli Towards Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Biofilm
Norzawani Binti Jaffar, Mohd Syakir Syahiran, Kesaven Bhubalan, 490-497

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 Background: Bacterial biofilm of the oral cavity contributes to the dispersion of pathogenic organisms to other organs, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Lactobacilli own potent activity against the biofilm of the periodontal pathogen. The study aims to evaluate the inhibition activity of the probiotics lactobacilli’s cells and supernatant during exponential and stationary phases against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans’s biofilm exponential phase.

Methods: Five Lactobacillus sp. and four A. actinomycetemcomitans strains were used during preliminary studies. Then, two chosen species of Lactobacillus sp. were used to determine inhibition activity towards A. actinomycetemcomitans’s biofilm using biofilm inhibition assay of a 96-well plate. Data of three replicates were presented as mean ± SD (standard deviation). The comparison was performed using Student t-test Software with P-value < 0.05 as the significant level.

Results: A significant difference in biofilm formation was observed in all four A. actinomycetemcomitans strains compared to the co-cultures biofilm assay with all probiotic lactobacilli for both cells and supernatant.  All probiotic lactobacilli show biofilm inhibition activity. Interestingly, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed between the stationary and exponential phases in the inhibitory activity of L. casei NBRC 15883’s cells. Whereas no significant difference was found for the biofilm inhibition activity of L. casei NBRC 15883’s supernatant. Otherwise, there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in inhibition activity between the exponential and stationary phase of L. johnsonii NBRC 13952 in both cells and supernatant.

Conclusion: This finding suggests a dynamic effect of the probiotic Lactobacillus sp. as part of counteraction strategies against the periodontal pathogen biofilm. The differential effect of stationary and exponential phases might indicate different mechanisms or compounds that require further study. 

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Incorporating Conditional Uncertainty into Decision-making for Forecasting Actual Evapotranspiration in Semi-arid Area
Majid Khayatnezhad, Hasti Keynoos, 498-503

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 Background: The long-term effects of climate change in all countries have been able to affect the water management system. Therefore, it is vital to consider the impacts of this phenomenon in sustainable management. A conditional framework has been conducted to predict crop water requirement in semi-arid regions with two climate scenarios of RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 considering the IPCC datasets. 

Methods: Eight models including EC EARTH, CESM, CANESM, HADGEM, GISS E2, GFDLCM2, MIROC ESM and IPSL were implemented to evaluate the extreme points of the evapotranspiration in future.

Result: Results showed that GISS E2 and GFDLCM2 models were more accurate to estimate the evapotranspiration. Moreover, in the next two periods for all four parameters in all GCM models, the RCP 8.5 situation was anticipated a better esteem than the RCP 4.5 choice. Comes about appeared that GFDLCM2 and GISS E2 models have more certainty for evapotranspiration. The lowest values during the next two periods 2020-2030 and 2080-2090 and the methods RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 for evapotranspiration by GISS E2 model have been obtained. The evapotranspiration alters based on the climate alter models amid the following two periods, distant and close, were inspected for two scenarios, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. The comes about appeared that the RCP 8.5 situation has assessed the four parameters for the following period more than the RCP 4.5 situation.

Conclusion: The comes about appeared that the RCP 8.5 situation has assessed the four parameters for the following period more than the RCP 4.5 situation. At that point the changes of the least and most extreme parameters of evapotranspiration for the two outflow scenarios amid the following two close and distant periods were inspected that the comes about appeared that the both scenarios have a nearly steady slant amid both the close and distant prospects and encompasses a slight increment and diminish. 

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Prevalence of Black Quarter in Association with Patho-Morphological Alterations in Affected Tissues at Different Zones of Punjab-Pakistan
Asif Idrees, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhary, Muhammad Younus, Aftab Anjum, Muhammad Ahsan Naeem, Muhammad Muneeb Rauf, Waqas Ahmad, Amanullah Khan, Qamar-un- Nisa, 504-509

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 Background: Blackleg or Black Quarter (BQ) is a serious bacterial disease caused by Clostridium chauvoei. It causes edematous and gaseous changes in skeletal muscles of animals. The study was designed to find prevalence of BQ in 6 districts of Punjab, Pakistan from June 2018 to June 2019.

Methods: Animals were randomly monitored, and selected in each union council regardless of age, sex and species, but lameness and hyperthermia were the selection parameters. A proforma was used to record the experimental readings of each animal. A total of 1500 swab samples from bovines (cattle and buffaloes) were processed through conventional PCR and culture sensitivity tests to examine the comparative diagnostic efficacy and suitability of the test.

Results: Sensitivity and specificity of culture tests were 87.6% and 34.19% respectively, whereas PCR demonstrated 81% and 47.3% results for the said aspects, respectively. Alpha toxin gene (Ccta) was amplified at 52.2oC yielding an amplicon size of 1400 base pairs. Area wise and season wise prevalence of each animal was also determined. The prevalence of BQ in cattle was significantly higher (P<0.05) in Muzaffargarh (25.6%), Layyah (24.8%), Rahim Yar Khan (23.2%), and Bhakkar (29.6%) that belonged to the arid and dessert zones of Punjab-Pakistan whereas, it was non-significant (P > 0.05) in Lahore (0%) and Nankana Sahib (8%) which belonged to the canal irrigated zones.

Conclusion: There was higher prevalence of BQ in different areas of Punjab, Pakistan that show the higher risk of disease transmission. A systematic surveillance system is essential to regularly monitor the disease incidence and prevalence in these areas of Pakistan. 

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Essential oil of Eucalyptus citriodora: Physio-Chemical analysis, Formulation with Hand Sanitizer Gel and Antibacterial Activity
Shabnam Javed, Amina Bibi, Amna Shoaib, Shagufta Perveen, Malik Fiaz Hussain Ferdosi, 510-515

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 Background: The essential oil-bearing plants are extensively being used in traditional systems of medicine due to the occurrence of the diversity of phytochemical constituents. The emerging crisis of developing resistance to conventional drugs has increased public health awareness and reliance on natural compounds as safer alternatives.

Methods: The essential oil extracted from Eucalyptus citriodora (Hook.) leaves was characterized for physicochemical attributes, formulated with hand sanitizer gel, tested for organoleptic parameters, and antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coliStaphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis.

Results: E. citriodora essential oil (EEO) had a camphorous scent, and dark yellow coloration, while exhibiting 0.60% yield (v/w, 97% pure), 0.94 density, 1.47 refractive index, 11.10 viscosity, 0.92 specific gravity, 0.0-9.98º optical rotation, 11.20 acid number, 50.60 ester number, which satisfy the standards specified by ISO (The International Organization for Standardization). The chromatographic analysis of oil identified eucalyptol as the most abundant compound (80.08%) followed by α-terpinyl acetate, isopinocarveol, and globulol as the moderately abundant compounds (4.46-4.81%), while viridiflorol and terpinen-4-ol as less abundant compounds (3.06 and 2.69%, respectively). Formulated hand sanitizer with EEO exhibited physical and microbiological properties that were comparable with the market products. It also had a pleasant scent, was compatible with the skin, was easy to apply, and is acceptable to the users.

Conclusion: The current study clearly shows that EEO could be utilized as a potential ingredient in alcohol-based gel hand sanitizer formulation for giving a pleasant smell, acceptable physical appearance and microbial quality parameters. 

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Presence and Antibiotic Resistance of MDR Salmonella Isolates Recovered from Zea mays L. Farms Located near the Poultry Farms in Faisalabad-Pakistan
Arslan Ali, Nimra Amjad, Fatima Javed, Zain Ul Abbas, Saima Muzammil, Muhammad Zeeshan Ahmad, Sadaf Oranab, Muhammad Umar, Maria Sajid, 516-520

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 Background: Salmonella is the major food-borne pathogen associated with food products and causative agent of salmonellosis. Discharge of untreated wastes and leakage of poultry drainage in irrigation water might be the significant source of contamination in fields. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Salmonella in the rhizosphere and phyllo sphere of Zea mays L farm, following irrigation with ditch water contaminated with poultry drainage.

Methods: Total 6 maize farms in and around Faisalabad (Pakistan) were selected nearby the poultry farm area. Irrigated water, rhizosphere and leaves were analyzed for presence of Salmonella. A total of 160 samples were collected from different farms. Samples were cultivated on SS agar media and incubated at 37oC.

Results: Out of 160 samples, 39 showed positive growth for bacterial contamination. 18 samples were confirmed as Salmonella by morphological and biochemical characteristics. Our results indicated the presence of Salmonella isolates from irrigated water (n=10), from rhizosphere (n=5), from phyllo sphere (n=1) and from roots (n=2). Antibiotics susceptibility pattern of Salmonella isolates against routinely used antibiotics had indicated that 71% isolates were resistant to Tetracycline and Amikacin, and 65% resistance to Chloramphenicol. All the isolates were sensitive to Levofloxacin, Tobramycin, Cefepime, Gentamycin, Cefoxitin and Sulfamethoxale. All isolates were intermediate resistant to cefuroxime and ampicillin.

Conclusion: From obtained result it is confirmed that Salmonella spp. have been found in irrigation water mixed with poultry drainage and could be a source of Salmonella contamination to the crops located near the poultry farms. 

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Mixed Bacteriological Isolation Percentages from the Uterus of Cows Slaughtered due to Infertility
Ali Risvanli, Hakan Kalender, Tarık Safak, Burak Fatih Yüksel, Burcu Karagulle, Oznur Yılmaz, Mehmet Akif Kilinc, 521-525

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 Background: Intrauterine mixed infections are an important problem in cattle breeding. In this study, we aimed to determine the mixed bacteriological isolation rates from the uterus of cows with clinical metritis and to reveal the relationships between the bacteria that isolated together.

Methods: For this purpose, sterile swabs were taken from 490 uterus obtained from cattle slaughtered due to infertility in three slaughterhouses and used them to perform microbiological tests. After evaluating the data, it was determined that the bacterial isolation rate from uterus with clinical metritis was 76.14% (n = 268).

Results: The rates for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 bacteria isolated from the uterus with clinical metritis were 48.13%, 33.96%, 15.30%, 2.24%, and 0.37%, respectively. The isolation rates for Trueperella pyogenesFusobacterium necrophorum, and Escherichia coli alone from the uterus with clinical metritis were 27.08%, 28.00%, and 16.51%, respectively. In uterus with clinical metritis, Staphylococcus aureus (16.67%) was the most commonly isolated bacteria with T. pyogenesClostridium spp. (16%) co-isolated with F. necrophorum, and coagulase-negative staphylococci (16.51%) and Bacillus spp. (16.51%) were detected with E. coli.

Conclusion: As a result, it was concluded that when evaluating the microbiological results for cows with clinical metritis, mixed infections should be taken into more consideration, and the characteristics of the bacteria that isolate together should be considered during the treatment of mixed infections. 

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The effects of vitamin D on Immunoresponsive gene 1 and Krüppel-like Factor 2 protein expression in the lung due to the cadmium poisoning
Nasim Kardan, Zohre Eftekhari, Saeed Ozmaie, Hesam Uddin Hoseinzadeh, 526-533

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 Background: Cadmium, a well-known hazardous heavy metal and non-essential component, has several negative health effects. The long-term use of cadmium toxin to develop a pulmonary model, evaluation of Irg1 gene expression and KLF-2 protein and serum IL4 levels following model induction, and evaluation of vitamin D's therapeutic effects in reducing pulmonary and hepatic complications in a mice model have not been studied.

Methods: A total of 40 healthy female C57 black 6 mice weighing 20–25 g and approximately 6–8 weeks’ old were purchased from animal husbandry, Pasteur Institute of Iran. After induction of the model, the mice were assigned to the following groups such as Group 1 (G1): mice were euthanized the day after induction. Group 2(G2): mice were ethically killed 21 days after induction. Group 3(G3) mice were treated with vitamin D and euthanized 5 days after treatment. Group 4(G4): mice were treated with vitamin D and euthanized 21 days after treatment. Vitamin D3 with a concentration of 300,000 units per milliliter, which is equivalent to 7.5 mg per 1 microliter, and 13.5 μl of the main stock is equivalent to 100 ng, which is used for 1 kg of mice. Blood samples were collected to measure serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase to evaluate liver toxicity.

Results: Based on the results obtained, serum SGPT levels in vitamin D treatment groups did not show a significant decrease compared to cadmium groups (p >0.001). The ALP biomarker in the groups treated with vitamin D was decreased significant in comparison to untreated model groups (p<0.001). While any significant differences were not observed between the Cd model and the Cd model treated with Vitamin D.

Conclusion: This study proved that administration vitamin D to some extent reduces the toxic effects of cadmium on the liver and lung. 

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Macro-mineral concentration analysis of Acacia ehrenbergiana (Salam) from the origin of Fujairah, UAE, with staple food items as a mineral rich dietary supplement for arid and semi-arid lands of the world
Wesayef Saeed Obaid Fares Al Dahmani, Shaher Bano Mirza, Muhammed Sirajul Huda Kalathingal, Fouad Lamghari Ridouane, 534-538

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 Background: Acacia ehrenbergiana is native plant of the Emirates of Fujairah, UAE. It’s qualities of being salt tolerant and coping up with harsh condition makes it prime focus and one of the priority plants for the Higher authorities in Fujairah.

Methods: The following study has assessed the nutritional values of Acacia ehrenbergiana and its comparison with staple foods used around the world. Proximate analyses were determined by international standard procedures (Association of Official Analytical Chemists, AOAC 2001.11, AOAC 920.39, AOAC 962.29, AOAC 942.05). Mineral ICP-OES vegetation mapping NVDI done using data from Sentinel2 satellite.

Results: The study highlighted the importance of this native plant as a potential source of potassium, calcium, and magnesium with higher values of these minerals as compared to the wheat, rice, soyabean and chickpeas. Expansion of vegetation has also been mapped which provide useful insight into the potential of Fujairah’s landscape in mass production of Acacia ehrenbergiana.

Conclusion: Results shows that the Acacia ehrenbergiana is agro-economically favorable plant with nutritional values similar and mineral values higher than the widely used staple food crops. Moreover, the expansion of agriculture area in Fujairah provides more hope in expanding the production of Acacia ehrenbergiana and its use on industrial level to produce food items or dietary supplement as economically viable solution to malnutrition in world. 

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Incidence of Colorectal Carcinoma in the Remote Area of Sindh, Pakistan
Muhammad Nawaz Abro, Muhammad Ejaz Khan, Muhammad Ibrahim, Greesh Kumar Maheshwari, Ghulam Asghar, Sarfraz Ahmed, Muhammad Qasim, Muhammad Allim, Quratulain Soomro, Jahanzaib Khan, Gotam Kumar, Muhammad Zeeshan Ahmed, Suvash Chandra Ojha, 539-546
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 Background: Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world that show malignant growth in the colon, rectum, and or appendix. CRC is the second most common malignancy in females and third in males. This study aimed to ascertain the incidence of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) in a population in a remote area of Sindh, Pakistan, and also compared and correlated the sociodemographic characteristics and different parameters such as diagnosis, grade, and histopathology of the CRC cases.

Methods: The study was conducted from February 2012 to 2019 at Pakistan Atomic Energy Cancer Hospital (NORIN) Nawabshah Sindh, Pakistan. All cases were evaluated through a detailed history, clinical examination, radiological examination, and histopathology-proven cases. The sociodemographic parameters, diagnosis grades, and histopathology of the CRC were statistically compared and correlated by SPSS version 21.

Results: Out of a total of 10,848 reported patients, 424 (3.9%) were of CRC. The CRC was further comprised of 63.9% males and 36.1% females. We classified our patients into two age groups, ≤ 40 years (Group-A), and > 40 years (Group B). Group-A comprised 41% of patients, and their mean age was 28±6.98 years, while Group B comprised 59% of patients with a mean age of 43±8.3 years. Histological specimens divulged that most of the common specimens were of adenocarcinoma. Early diagnosis was very strenuous due to no signs and symptoms. Thus, the majority of the patients, approximately 39%, were found to be of grade 2 carcinoma.

Conclusion: Our study unveils an increased number of patients with CDC at an age of <40 belonging to rural areas. Further studies are needed to elucidate the cause of this high incidence with a particular focus on genetic and molecular risk factors. 

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Molecular Analysis of Cold Responsive (COR) Genes in Selected Sugarcane and Saccharum spontaneum L.
Shafee Ur Rehman, Khushi Muhammad, Hassan Sher, Youxiong Que, Rahmat Ali, Shahid Ali, Ishtiaq Hassan, Murad Ali Rahat, 547-551
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 Background: Sugarcane (Saccharum derived) is an important commercially harvested crop in all parts of the world including tropical and subtropical areas. Saccharum hybrid is the tall perennial true grasses with sweet stalk rich in sucrose and it is the main source of sugar.

Methods: Initially, 23 genes differentially expressed during cold stress in other Andropogoneae tribe members were retrieved from NCBI GenBank and were investigated in the genome of selected sugarcane and Saccharum spontaneum L. Samples. Their presence in our samples was analyzed and confirmed through PCR and Agarose Gel Electrophoresis (AGE).

Results: Most of these (COR) genes (21/23) were confirmed in cold tolerant cultivars namely, SPSG-394, CP-851491 and Saccharum spontaneum L. while the least number of genes was observed in cold sensitive cultivar namely, CP-77400. Moreover 10 cold responsive genes, namely CBF1, CBF2, CBF3, COR 6.6, COR 78, COR 47, WCOR 80, WCOR14, C17 and 85KDA were sent for sequencing. Nucleotide sequences analysis of selected genes revealed the homology to stress responsive protein. Furthermore, during a conserved domain search, three conserved domains had been detected, namely gypsy transposon, zinc binding for reverse transcriptase and pepsin like aspartate proteases.

Conclusion: The analysis of cold responsive genes in sugarcane could help breeders to select cold tolerant sugarcane cultivars through PCR amplification. 

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Assessment of Seed Priming Effect on Germination and Cotton Productivity of Two Cotton Varieties in Multan
Zoia Arshad Awan, Fawad Sufyan, Syed Azaz Mehdi, Liaqat Ali Khan, Asad Ullah Imran, 552-559
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 Background: Due to low information about total antioxidant capacity of three species of plants native to Ilam province which are used in the ethnobotanical knowledge of this region, This study was drafting to evaluation the antioxidant ability of bitter and sweet varieties of Ferula assa-foetida and Bunium persicum with therapeutic potential on gynecological diseases.

Methods: The methanolic extracts of two different variants of F. assa-foetida and B. persicum gum-resin were prepared and then antioxidant effects were evaluated by ferric reducing-antioxidant power assay.

Results: Our results showed that methanolic extracts of B. persicum gum-resin could significantly revealed antioxidant effect in comparison to two different variants of F. assa-foetida (P<0.05). While antioxidant capacity between bitter and sweet varieties of F. assa-foetida were not statistically significant.

Conclusion: Our results showed that both B. persicum and the bitter and sweet varieties of F. assa-foetida native to Ilam province, located in west of Iran, could have medicinal therapeutic effects relatively through direct oxidation prevention.  

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Molecular Profiling of Pakistani Selected Advance Lines of Rice for Amylose Content
Shah Faisal, Shafee Ur Rehman, Hassan Sher, Khushi Muhammad, Rahmat Ali, Shahid Ali, Zahid Hussain, Wajid Khan, Arshad Iqbal, Murad Ali Rahat, 560-566
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 Background: Pakistani rice is well-known for its quality. Its consumption increases with the increase in population. The gel consistency (GC) amylose content (AC) and gelatinization temperature (GT) are the most important rice characters, which are associated directly to eating and cooking attributes. But for its good taste and eating quality depends on its endosperm starch quality and quantity. Amylose, a chief determinant of rice attribute, is principally synthesized and controlled by a major gene (Waxy gene) encoding an enzyme called granule bound starch synthase (GBBS).

Methods: Current investigation was carried out to characterize advance lines of rice by both conventional and molecular approaches. In present study Waxy gene was identified in advance lines of rice.

Results: Show that out of 17 advanced lines, 9 lines were waxy or low amylose, and 1 line was non waxy or high amylose rice because of the presence of 425 bp fragment and 225 bp fragment of Wx gene respectively. For morphological data 14 morphological quantitative traits were studied.

Conclusion: Advance lines of rice analyzed during the present investigation showed better grain quality. A number of advance lines contain extra-long and medium slender grains which have intermediate to high gelatinization temperatures. Thus these advance lines are appropriate for the improvement of saline rice. Except one advance line 19 that showed Hard gel consistency and the majority of advance lines fall in the category of soft gel consistency and thus are of excellent quality. 

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Animal Blood supplemented diet can improve growth performance, body composition and blood profile of Genetically Improved Farm Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Hafiza Samra Ambreen, Najma Arshad, Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad, Ghulam Ayesha Javed, Kiran Shazadi, Farman Ahmad Chaudhury, 567-573
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 Background: Artificial feeding is an effective way to enhance fish production, development and carrying capacity of the culture system to feed the increasing human population. This study was designed to determine and compare the effects of supplementation of basal fish feed with plant (soybean meal) and animal blood as protein sources.

Methods: The experiment was conducted using a completely randomized block design. A total of 135 Genetically Improved Farm Tilapia were randomly divided into three groups comprising three replicates and kept in controlled conditions in nine glass aquaria for a period of ninety days. The animals were provided basal diet, plant and animal protein supplemented diets throughout the experiment. Water quality parameters were recorded on a routine basis while growth performance, blood indices and chemical analysis of the body was recorded after ninety days of trial.

Results: Overall, water quality parameters remained within the normal range, which highlights those diets had no detrimental effect on the quality of the water and in all groups. However, the fish kept on animal-based protein source diet presented higher growth performance, crude protein and lipids contents, red blood cell count and normal serum ALT, AST, and ALP levels In contrast the fish kept on plant protein diet displayed comparatively lower meat quality and signs of toxicity viz., raised level of hepatic enzymes.

Conclusion: From these results, it was concluded that fish fed on diet having blood meal supplementation showed higher performance in comparison to fish groups fed on other diets. 

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Potential health-related phytoconstituents in leaves of Chenopodium quinoa
Arshad Javaid, Farman Ahmad Chaudhury, Iqra Haider Khan, Malik F. H. Ferdosi, 574-588
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 Background: Chenopodium quinoa Willd. or quinoa is an important food crop, having many pharmacological properties. It is recently introduced in Pakistan. In the present study, a phytochemical profile of its leaf extract was assessed through GC-MS analysis, and the health-related compounds were identified through a literature survey.

Methods: Quinoa was grown in Lahore, Pakistan, and its leaves were collected at maturity, dried, ground, and extracted in methanol. GC-MS analysis of this extract was done that showed the presence of 30 compounds.

Results: The most abundant compound was α-linolenic acid (12.13%), followed by n-hexadecanoic acid (11.51%), ergosta-5,7-dien-3-ol, (3β)- (10.99%), phytol (10.25%), and stigmast-7-en-3-ol, (3.beta.,5.alpha.,24S)- (7.33%). Moderately occurring compounds included DL-proline, 5-oxo-, methyl ester (6.01%), hydroxylamine, O-pentyl- (5.38%), neophytadiene (4.36%), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (3.96%), 2-isopropoxyethyl propionate (3.84%), vitamin E (2.52%), and linolenic acid, methyl ester (2.46%). The remaining compounds were less abundant, having peak areas of less than 2%.

Conclusion: Literature survey revealed that α-linolenic acid; n-hexadecanoic acid; phytol; squalene, vitamin E and linolenic acid, and methyl ester; present in leaf extract of quinoa possess various health-related properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, cardio-protective, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, antihistaminic, antiandrogenic and antieczemic.  

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Identification of Plant Flora Affecting Anti-Anxiety and Anti-Depression Disorders Based on Ethnobotanical Knowledge of the Arasbaran Region, Azerbaijan, Iran
Kourosh Saki, Zohreh Goudarzi, Yeganeh Mazaheri, Samira Shokri, Pouya Parsaei, Mahmoud Bahmani, 589-594
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 Background: Ethnobotany, as a part of every district’s national capital, involves residents' experience and knowledge about plants and their features being the result of a long time of trial and error in nature. The purpose of this study was to obtain and document the culture of the traditional application of Arasbaran medicinal plants from Azerbaijan province in Iran.

Methods: In this research, the information and knowledge of the people about the effective medicinal plants on common psychiatric syndromes including anxiety and depression were collected through questionnaires and interviews. Questions contain local names, organ usage, and traditional therapeutic characteristics of plants. Interviews then went on until the repeated answers confirmed the reliability and validity.

Results: Labiatae plant family with 4 plants was the most effective herb family for the treatment of common psychiatric diseases. Also, the most plant organs utilized for treating nervous disorders included aerial parts (36%), fruits (22%), flowering branches (each with 21%) and flowers (14%), and seeds (7%). So, identification and documentation of their indigenous knowledge can pave the way for a better application of medicinal plants and their products.

Conclusion: In this study, 12 medicinal plant species belonging to 9 families were studied. The largest proportion of plant species was related to the Labiatae family. The most commonly used organs were aerial parts, fruits, and flowering branches, respectively. Native medicinal plants of the Arasbaran region are traditionally used to treat common psychiatric syndromes and can be highly effective in the treatment of disorders such as depression and anxiety.  

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Evaluation and determining of the Pattern of the Human Albumin Utilization at Shahid Rahimi Hospital, Khorramabad, Iran
Vahid Rahimi, Fanak Fahimi, Javad Ghasemian Yadegari, Hadi Hayati Abbarik, Arian Karimi Rouzbahani, Zahra Heydari, Ali Kharazmkia, 595-602
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 Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) has supported many intervention strategies, including executive, educational, and monitoring proceedings to improve the evaluation of drug use and the drug management system. Since the resources are limited, it is essential to utilize existing resources properly. Serum albumin is the most abundant blood protein produced in the liver. Different forms of albumin are available in the market and employed to treat hypovolemia, Cirrhotic ascites, severe burns, septic shock, hyperstimulation syndrome, etc. Due to the high price of albumin and its importance for saving patient’s lives.

Methods: precisely according to the determined protocols, and it’s unreasonable and irrational medication should be avoided. Statistical analysis was performed in Shahid Rahimi Hospital of Khorramabad, Iran, from March 2018 to March 2019. Albumin administration for randomly selected patients receiving albumin in different wards was evaluated. The main sources to retrieve information were pharmacy drug folders, patient folders (including laboratory information), and nursing folders. Age, sex, weight, ward, albumin level, symptoms, and final dose were recorded for each patient. Contraindications to the administration of albumin or any caution in its use were also considered. Data were analyzed by using SPSS16 and Excel software. Independent T-test and Chi-square test were employed to compare quantitative and qualitative variables. 271 patients were studied, including 160 men and 111 women.

Results: The two male and female surgical wards with 41 patients had the highest percentage of patients admitted with albumin administration. Also, the most common cause of albumin administration in patients was hypoalbuminemia. 55% of albumin prescriptions in Shahid Rahimi Hospital of Khorramabad were irrational, driving a substantial financial burden for the healthcare system and patients. Among all the prescribed cases, only 5.2% were approved by the pharmacist. Finally, 77.1% of patients recovered, and 22.9% died.

Conclusion: Considering that the highest percentage of patients receiving albumin administration, both among patients with irrational administration and in general, were in men's and women's surgical wards, it is recommended that the drugs prescribed in these wards be further investigated and get pre- Approved by a pharmacist to prevent higher medical costs for patients and healthcare system.  

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Characteristics of Patients with Breast Cancer Attending the Breast Cancer Center in Sudan
Mohamed Osman Elamin Bushara, 603-606
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 Background: Breast cancer is one of major health problems worldwide with increasing prevalence and accounts for comprising 16 percent of all female cancers. Objective of this study is investigated about the characteristics of patients with breast cancer attending the breast cancer center in Sudan to understand reasons for late diagnosis.

Methods: Cross sectional descriptive study conducted; 200 women attending at the oncology center of the capital city participated.

Results: Breast cancer was more prevalent among the age group of (31-40) with percentage of (39%), the reproductive characteristics of them indicated that (30%) did not have children, while 29% had more than two children, (46.5%) had menarche at age of (<11 year), (67.5%) were at Pre-menopause status, while (32.5%) were at post-menopause (48%)  of earned income  between (0-1000SDG) per month, reflecting the low-socio-economic status of them, as they did not have enough income for proper diagnosis  and  treatment, while the service is not free, concerning body weight, (31%) was overweight (25 -29.9 Kg/ m²), while (4.5%) of them had morbid obesity(≥ 40 Kg/m²).The results also showed that(71%) took vitamin as a supplement.

Conclusion: The study concluded that the cost of service and lack of awareness hindered early detection among low socio-economic status patients. 

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Ultrasound Detected Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Prevalence and its Risk Factors in Pakistani Population
Muzna Waseem, Fizza Saeed, Rida Khan, 607-611
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 Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common predictor of chronic liver disease. It is an emerging health condition in Pakistan and in most cases, the disease remains undiagnosed due to a low trend of screening processes observed over the years. The purpose of this research was to assess the relationship of ultrasonography (USG) – detected NAFLD with the risk factors including obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and menopause.

Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated the data gathered from medical histories, anthropometric measurements, and diagnostic abdominal ultrasound scans of 87 patients referred to radiology department of a trust hospital in Lahore, Pakistan. Patient diagnosed with NAFLD without any other disease or complication were selected through purposive sampling for further study.

Results: The results depicted a higher prevalence of NAFLD in females. Among diagnosed NAFLD patients, most (33.7%) showed signs of mild fatty liver on USG. Statistically, a significant (p value= 0.002) relationship of obesity with NAFLD was observed. NAFLD patients had higher mean BMI values (31.04 ± 4.67 Kg/m2, p value = 0.000) as compared to other patients (25.34 ± 4.71 Kg/m2), confirming that obesity is the most important risk factor for NAFLD. Other risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, and menopause) were not found to be significantly related to NAFLD.

Conclusion: The major finding of this study is that higher BMI increases the likelihood of developing NAFLD. Prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity can reduce the prevalence of NAFLD. 

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Association of BCR-ABL Alternative Splice Variants with Disease Progression, Treatment Response and Survival in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients Treated with Firstline imatinib Monotherapy
Nawaf Alanazi, Zafar Iqbal, Tanveer Akhtar, Ahmad M. Khalid, Aamer Aleem, Saba Shahzadi, Afia M. Akram, Mahmood Rasool, Ijaz H. Shah, Muhammad Khalid, Mudassar Iqbal, Abid Jameel, Zeba Aziz, Muhammad Farooq Sabar, Maryam AlMajed, Buthinah AlShehab, Sarah AlMukhaylid, Nouf AlMutairi, Dhay Salah Almaghlouth, Alhanoof Rashid A Alsuwaidani, Muhammad Arshad, Rashid Ayub, Khaled Aljarrah, Amer Mahmood
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 Background: Alternative RNA splicing has diverse biological effects in heath as well as disease. It also contributes to cancer onset and progression. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) results due to BCR-ABL fusion oncogene that is created due to chromosomal translocation t [9; 22] [q34; q11]). BCR-ABL is target of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). BCR-ABL through alternative splicing can generate b2a2, b3a2 and some other rare splicing variants. BCR-ABL variants may vary in their response to TKI treatment and disease progression potential, which is a major factor contributing to dismal treatment outcome in CML. Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate correlation of BCR-ABL splice variants with TKI treatment outcome and survival in three phases of CML that has rarely been studied previously.

Methods: BCR-ABL splice variants were studied using reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). in 70 CML patients from three phases of CML who were receiving imatinib (TKI) treatment.

Results: Frequencies of different BCR/ABL splice variants like b3a2, b2a2 and b3a2+b2a2 were 49 (70%), 15 (21.4%) and 6 (8.6%), respectively. Splice variant b2a2 were more common (53.3%) in chronic phase CML (CP-CML) while b3a2 had higher frequency in advanced phases of CML (44.9%). CML patients with b2a2 transcript had better complete cytogenetic response and major molecular response to TKI treatment overall (100% vs. 24.5%) as well as in CP-CML (100% vs. 85.7%) and superior survival when compared to patients with b3a2 splice variant. All patients who died had male gender, less than 33 years age, b3a2 transcript, advanced phases of CML and imatinib resistance.

Conclusions: Splice variant b3a2 was associated with CML progression, poorer survival and inferior treatment outcome as compared to b2a2. Further investigations on BCR-ABL splice variants and their roles in CML pathogenesis can provide deeper insights into CML biology and new targets for BCR-ABL positive leukemia treatment.  

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Advancements in Life Sciences (ISSN 2310-5380) provides free platform for the fast peer-reviewed publication of articles covering novel and innovative aspects of biological sciences. Including full length research articles and short communications, we accept material in other categories too view other submission materials. This Journal publishes articles falling in the scope of “life sciences” ranging from molecular biological or genetic discoveries to biochemical systems and new microbiological concepts in human, veterinary and plant sciences. Multidisciplinary research articles, providing novel insight and original information, that would not be publishable in single discipline devoted journals are welcomed particularly in this journal for publication. The following research areas are covered in the Journal:

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