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Advancements in Life Sciences, volume 10, issue 2 – June 2023Cover; Volume 10, Issue 2
ISSN 2310-5380

IN THIS ISSUE

This 2nd issue of the 10th volume has featured 25 multidisciplinary articles including 3 short communications, 1 review article and 21 research papers of authors from 12 countries covering aspects from different stems of life science. Enjoy reading!

 

Short Communications


Investigating perceived stress levels and its underpining in Rabat-Sale-Kenitra Region, Morocco
Eliesse Drissi, Samira Boulbaroud, Hind Hami, Ahami Ahmed, Azzaoui Fatima Zahra, pages 143-147
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 Background: Our attitude towards stress remains individual and unique and strongly depends on our perception. Our personality traits shape our perception of our resources and environmental constraints. Public service officers are a population under enormous pressure ; this is why it is interesting to study the interaction between perceived stress and big five within this population, in the Rabat-Sale-kenitra Region.

Methods: The study involved a sample of 387 individuals whose 55.8% (n=216) are male and 44.2% (n=171) are female, with a minimum age of 22 years and a maximum age of 65 years, with an average age of 32.75 9.79. The big five inventory and the PSS10 were used for the collection of information.

Results: Our results pointed to a significant and positive relationship between neurosis and perceived stress as well as a negative and significant relationship between the other four big five and perceived stress. Moreover, Neurosis and Extraversion predict a high perception of perceived stress, respectively in a positive and in a negative way.

Conclusion: This study provides a better understanding of this interaction, which could now be taken into account through a primary intervention aimed at eliminating or controlling the risk factors present in the workplace in order to reduce their negative impacts on the individual. 

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Molecular phylogeny and morphological characterization of Leucocoprinus birnbaumii from Punjab, Pakistan
Hira Ijaz, Maham Mureed, Aneela Yasmeen, Arooj Naseer, Abrar Hussain, Sana Jabeen, pages 148-151
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 Background: Leucocoprinus in Agaricaceae is a genus distributed worldwide and represented by nearly 50 species. From Pakistan, only four species in this genus have been known so far.

Methods: The specimen was identified by morphological and anatomical characters combining with sequence analysis of nrDNA-ITS region.

Results: Leucocoprinus birnbaumii, a bright yellow mushroom found on wood log from Sialkot district, Punjab, Pakistan. This species is identified by its medium sized bell-shaped pileus bearing the same colored squamule with sulcate striate margins, presence of metachromatic basidiospores and pseudoparaphyses around the basidia. Molecular data also supported its taxonomy as L. birnbaumii. The species is being described for the first time based on morphological and anatomical characters in combination with molecular phylogeny using ITS region of nrDNA.

Conclusion: Leucocoprinus birnbaumii is widely distributed in Asia, Africa, Europe, North America and South America. It grows in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Its occurrence in Sialkot, Punjab, Pakistan with humid subtropical climate represents its wide ecological amplitude and geographic distribution. 

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Extending the Storage Life of Foods Using Shungite
T.V. Shevchenko, Yu.V. Ustinova, E.O. Ermolaeva, A.M. Popov, G.B. Uzunov, pages 152-156
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 Background: Shungite has gained popularity in recent years as a material for water purification and food preservation. The purpose of the study is to develop a fast method of assessing the biological activity of shungite batches and to determine the time of contact between shungite and water to increase or reduce the bioactivity of shungite water in the food industry, specifically in the production of baked goods with extended shelf life.

Methods: The authors study the bioactivity of pre-prepared water using yeasts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae species based on the evaluation of the fermentation rate of sugar solutions in their presence. Infused shungite was used in kneading dough and by applying shungite water after baking. The experiment involved infusing distilled water on shungite for varying periods of time, preparing three versions of 30% aqueous solutions with distilled water and shungite water, adding 2% dry baking yeast to each solution, conducting fermentation processes, and mixing dough for bread with regular and shungite water. The bread samples were evaluated for their organoleptic characteristics and physical and chemical properties.

Results: The study concludes that the use of shungite water in the preparation of bread dough has no negative impact on the quality of the final product. It can even help to prolong the shelf life of baked goods, making it a promising material for the food industry. As a result, the authors propose a process of bread processing to increase its shelf life.

Conclusion: The results suggest that further research is needed to determine the long-term effects of using shungite water and its potential benefits for human health, as well as to explore the impact of different contact times between shungite and water on the biological activity of water and its effect on the quality of the final product. 

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Association between polymorphism of the CRP gene rs1130864 and hypertension among Iraqi hypertensive patients
Luay Qasim Abdulhameed, Mohanad W. Mahdi Alzubaidy, pages 157-160
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 Background: C-reactive protein (CRP) a reactant of the acute phase and a measure of persistent low-grade inflammatory processes. Objectives of this paper to the role of rs1130864 polymorphism in CRP gene among Iraqi hypertensive patients.

Methods: Samples of blood were collected from patients with hypertension and controls, their age (37 to 75). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was used to calculate the risk score for the disease of hypertension, Moreover, PCR/SNP (specific primers) was used to do genotyping.

Results: HWE analysis of hypertensive patients and controls showed that the rs1130864 genotypes were in agreement with the equilibrium, without differences clear between the observed and expected genotype frequencies (p >0.153, 0.238). The frequencies of genotype and alleles were compared in hypertensive patients with controls, with no significant differences. The common GG genotype of rs1130864 recorded a significant increase in hypertensive patients and controls and was regarded as a preventative fraction (RR = 0.76), whilst, GA , AA genotype were considered the etiological fraction (RR = 1.06, 2.59) and associated with hypertension. Compared to A allele, which might be the cause of the disease, G allele might be preventive.

Conclusion: The findings showed that the Iraqi population's GA, AA genotype, and A allele are risk factors for hypertension. However, the need for additional findings utilizing bigger samples is needed are necessary to verify our findings. 

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 Review Articles


Variations in genomic epidemiology and in-silico screening of potential phytochemicals to cure Monkeypox
Muhammad Adil, Muhammad Waseem, Abdul Qadeer Haider, Nageen Hussain, pages 161-166
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 Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is passed on when people encounter infectious animals. Before April 2022, the Monkeypox virus was reported only in South Africa and its surrounding region but now it has been spread all over the world. This Monkeypox virus consumes an incubation period of five to twenty-one days and can be communicated through direct contact, breathing, contaminated towels, bedding, and so on. The Orthopoxvirus variety is a subfamily of the Poxviridae family that incorporates the Monkeypox infection. Their unique property is to suppress the host defense system and to exploit host immunity. Treatment of Monkeypox involves two vaccines named JYNNEOSTM and ACAM2000. Antiviral medications can be considered for serious diseases, immunocompromised patients, pediatrics, pregnant and lactating ladies, complex sores, and when injuries happen close to the mouth, eyes, and privates. This review article gives a basic information ofA48R, a thymidine kinase, which is involved in DNA replication pathways in the Monkeypox virus. The potential drugs for A48R inhibition like NMCT and rutaecarpine are considered good synthetic drugs. The maximum affinity -18 was shown by phytochemical dictamnine, amentoflavone -7.5, citral -7.8, and naringin – 6.6 which can be isolated from different plants.  The purpose of this review article is to describe variations in genomic epidemiology and in-silico screening of potential phytochemicals to cure Monkeypox. 

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Full Length Research Articles


Assessment of heavy metal contamination in vegetables collected from selected localities of Okara, Pakistan
Saba Younas, Syeda Anjum Tahira, Muhammad Umer Farooq, pages 167-173
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 Background: Human health is prone to heavy metals especially which become part of food chain by any means. Previously, no extensive nutritional studies are conducted on local food products and grains. The research work was carried out to observe level of heavy metals in vegetables sold or consumed in different localities of Okara city, Pakistan.

Methods: The concentration of heavy metals Nickel, Cadmium, Cobalt, Copper and Chromium in ten different types of vegetables collected from selected sites survey were analyzed using tri-acid method for atomic absorption spectrometer.

Results: The results showed that concentrations of all analyzed heavy metals were significantly (P≤ 0.05) different, except values of copper in collected vegetable samples. The average concentration ranged from 5.4 – 44.06 ppm of Cobalt, 5.7 – 9.63 ppm of Copper, 4.49 – 11.13 ppm of Cadmium, 4.59 – 33.77 ppm of Chromium and 8.58 – 13.68 ppm of Nickel. Mean concentrations of metals were found in following sequence Copper < Cadmium < Nickel < Chromium < Cobalt.

Conclusion: It was concluded that vegetables can accumulate high concentrations of Cobalt and Chromium while Nickel,  Cadmium and Copper concentrates in low amount,  from which level of chromium and cadmium surpasses the permissible limits by FAO/WHO especially in underground vegetables (Onion and Radish), which could be the cause of serious health issues. Hence, monitoring and assessment of contaminants in vegetables are periodically needed and public safety measures should be imposed. 

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Impact of Moringa oleifera Leaf and Flaxseed on Lipid Oxidation and Microbiological Characteristics of Chicken Burger During Cold Storage
Nahid Abdelraheem Ali, Bothaina, S. Abd El Hakeem, Saeed S.A.M, Salwa. E. Ibrahim, Sarah Mesfer Alamri, Abdel Moneim Elhadi Sulieman, pages 174-179

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 Background: Practice of making burgers out of chicken instead of red meat is gaining popularity. because of their high fat substance and on account of no social or strict limitations to the utilization of poultry. The present study aimed to assess effect of adding Moringa oleifera leaf and flaxseed combinations on lipid oxidation and microbiological traits of chicken burger during cold storage.

Methods: In this study the pH, peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) as well as microbiological characteristics of chicken burger formulated by various levels of Moringa oleifera leaf and flaxseed powder were evaluated. Samples were as follows: control=0%FS+0%MLP; T1=20%FS+0%MLP; T2=15%FS+5%MLP; T3=10%FS+10%MLP; T4=5%FS+15%MLP; andT5=0%FS+20%MLP.

Results: The results showed that the pH value of burger samples supplemented with Moringa oleifera and flaxseed was decreased (P≤0.05) with an increasing period of storage and ranged between 3.5–5.1 and 3.3-4.9 when stored for 15 and 30 days, respectively.

Conclusion: Peroxide values โ€‹โ€‹of T2, T3, T4 and T5 as well as the value of TBA within the MLP-treated and FS-treated samples (P 0.05) decreased with the progression of the storage period. Microbiological characteristics (P 0.05) were affected by the incorporation of MLP and FS in chicken burger treatments.  

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Prevalence and Antibiotic Sensitivity Testing of Bacteria Isolated from Open Wounds of Hospitalized Patients
Iqra Arooj, Maryam Noor, Nadia Jabbar, Asghar Javaid, pages 180-185

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 Background: Substantial infectivity of open wounds by microorganisms not only precipitates in terms of complexity, morbidity and mortality because of encouraging other fatal comorbidities but also becomes challenging to handle by medical practitioners.

Methods: To ascertain the bioburden associated particularly with bacteria in open wounds, this research work was conducted at the Microbiology and Molecular Genetics department of Women University, Multan in association with Pathology Department of Nishtar Hospital and College, Multan from January to June 2018. 65 different wound samples were collected from different wards and analyzed by standard procedures for bacterial isolation and characterization, employing biochemical tests including catalase, oxidase, coagulase, motility, triple-sugar iron (TSI), citrate and indole tests. The isolated bacterial strains were also evaluated for sensitivity or resistance against twelve different antibiotics.

Results: All the 65 samples were found to be positive for bacterial presence. Gram-positive cocci constituted 63% of the isolates and gram-negative rods comprised 37%. Biochemical tests revealed that the predominant pathogen was Staphylococcus aureus (63.1%) followed by Proteus spp., (15.4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.3%) and Escherichia coli (9.2%), respectively. Antibiotic sensitivity testing disclosed that the most effective antibiotics against these isolates were Tigecycline and Polymyxin B while the least effective antibiotics were Ceftazidime and Ampicillin.

Conclusion: These findings can prove beneficial in understanding the prevalence of various bacteria in wound infections. In addition, they indicate the need to develop and implement antibiotic stewardship programs so as to combat drug resistance among pathogens.  

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Genetic Diversity and Screening of Rice Germplasm Lines against Grain Discoloration Disease
Farman Ahmad Chaudhry, Muhammad Ashfaq, Ambar Javed, Muhammad Ali, Abdul Rasheed, Muhammad Jamil, Adnan Shakir, pages 186-192

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 Background: The research was conducted to screen out the diverse rice germplasm lines against grain discoloration disease by using 10 SSR primer pairs and on the basis of various morphological characters to evaluate the diversity of the genotypes at Faculty of Agricultural sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore. 

Methods: Seed morphological traits were measured and recorded under Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) experiment. DNA extraction and PCR analysis was done to measure the genotypic characteristics of rice. Genotypic and phenotypic variability was measured by using ANOVA and correlation. Microsatellite markers, also called simple sequence repeats (SSR) were used for screening and to check the genetic diversity of rice.

Results: The PIC values ranged from 0.204 of RM-07 to 0.640 of primer RM-22 along with other genetic characters i.e., number of alleles, percentage of polymorphism chromosomal location etc. The higher PIC (polymorphism information content) value showed the greatest genetic diversity among the genotypes. The polymorphic SSRs produced 3-5 alleles with an average unit of 3.3. The PIC values ranged from 0.204 to 0.640 with an average mean of 0.51. All the genotypes showed significant differences in all the studied traits which gave the significant results and non-significant results at significance level of p<0.05= *; p<0.01=** respectively.  A significant association was also observed between seed length with length width ratio, 1000 grain weight (r= 0.1251*; r= 0.1922**) and seed thickness with 1000 grain weight (r=0.1205*). All these traits showed higher variations for different rice lines.

Conclusions:  From the study it was concluded that some rice found to be highly resistant (Blue Nile, IR 50, Line 9 (4×15) and Line 12 (4×23) against grain discoloration that could be more useful for the production new rice lines with diverse genetic characteristics. 

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Effect of quinoa biomass and biocontrol fungi on expression of IPER gene in mung bean in Macrophomina phaseolina contaminated soil
Farman Ahmad Chaudhury, Iqra Haider Khan, Arshad Javaid, pages 193-199

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 Background: Mung bean is a pulse crop of economic significance, grown in Pakistan for its edible seeds. Its production is severely affected by Macrophomina phaseolina, a necrotrophic pathogen. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of different biocontrol fungi on expression of IPER gene in mung bean plants inoculated with M. phaseolina.

Methods: Pot trials were carried out by adding different concentration of dry biomass of quinoa (DBQ) and six antagonistic fungi viz. Aspergillus flavipes, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium digitatumPenicillium italicum, Trichoderma pseudokoningii and Trichoderma viride in M. phaseolina infected soils. After four weeks of germination of mung bean seeds, RNA was extracted from roots and leaves by using TRIzol method and cDNA was prepared by using SuperScriptTM IV First-Strand Synthesis Kit. IPER gene expression was studied on qRT-PCR and ACT was used as a housekeeping gene.

Results: The expression of IPER gene was higher in positive control (only inoculated with M. phaseolina) than in negative control (no amendment). Moreover, 1 and 2% doses of DBQ showed slightly higher Ct values than in 3% dose where it was dropped down indicating the allelopathic stress of DBQ treated soils. The treatments either with sole application of antagonistic fungi or together with DBQ showed much higher Ct values indicating no stress at all.

Conclusion: Plants only inoculated with M. phaseolina showed the highest disease incidence as compared to the negative control. The soils amended with DBQ and antagonistic fungi significantly alleviated the effect of M. phaseolina. The treatments with increased pathogen stress showed reduced Ct values and vice versa. 

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Bioactivity and Metabolomics Profiling of Endophytic Actinobacteria Isolated from Roots of the Medicinal Plants Dominant in South Asian Region
Ashba Hassan, Larissa V. Ponomareva, Jon S. Thorson, Khaled A. Shaaban, Imran Sajid, pages 200-209

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 Background: Plant-derived endophytic actinobacteria are the center of attention due to their capacity to produce diverse antimicrobial and anticancer compounds and their metabolites influence plant growth.

Methods: In this study, 40 endophytic actinobacteria strains were isolated from the roots of eight medicinal plants used as folk medicine in South Asian region. The isolates were characterized morphologically, biochemically and physiologically and the genus level identification of the selected strains was done by 16SrRNA gene sequencing. In small scale cultivation (50ml broth), the isolates were grown in A-medium to prepare the crude extracts. These crude extracts were subsequently evaluated for their antimicrobial, anticancer and antioxidant activity and the metabolomics profile of each of the extract was determined by TLC and HPLC-UV/MS.

Results: The taxonomic studies showed that the isolates belong to the group actinobacteria based on their morphological and physiological characteristics and the 16SrRNA gene sequencing of the selected strains identified the genera including Streptomyces, Micromonospora and Nocardia. Cumulatively,53% of extracts exhibited anti-Gram-(+) activity,47% exhibited anti-Gram-(-) activity,32% exhibited antifungal activity and 30% were cytotoxic to PC3 and A549 cancer cell lines and most of the extracts have shown antioxidant activity greater than 50%. The metabolomics analysis predicted the presence of an array of low molecular weight metabolites and indicated the promising isolates in collection for further studies for novel bioactive metabolite isolation and structure elucidation.

Conclusion: Overall the study provides an overview of the endophytic actinobacteria residing in the roots of the selected medicinal plants prevalent in south Asian region and their potential to produce the medicinally and biotechnologically useful compounds. 

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Microbial Status and Resistance Profile of Bacterial Species Isolated from Recreational and Agricultural Sites in Multan
Rabia Sultan, Humaira Yasmeen, Iqra Munir, Fazeel Laraib, pages 210-215

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 Background: Humans are in continuous contact with recreational areas and agricultural fields. However, recent discovery of resistant bacteria in these sites have posed serious threats to the community.

Methods: This study is designed to investigate prevalence of resistant bacteria in agricultural and recreational areas i.e., parks and rivers, to investigate their resistant profiling against antibiotics and metals by culture dependent agar techniques and to investigate effect of local medicinal plants on isolated resistant bacteria.

Results: A total of 106 isolates from 35 water and sediments samples were isolated. A resistant rate of 46.05% was reported against antibiotics; the highest against ampicillin (75%) and the lowest against streptomycin (8.9%). Identified resistant strains were Bacillus megateriumBacillus subtilisKlebsiella pneumoniaeE. coliMicrococcus luteusStaphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. Co-occurrence of metal resistance with antimicrobial resistance was also reported. Ethanolic leaves extracts showed promising results against isolated resistant bacteria. The highest and lowest zone of inhibition was reported in Syzygium cumini (37mm) and Ziziphus mauritiana (10mm).

Conclusion: The finding of this study has demonstrated presence of resistant bacteria in publicly accessed areas that support various needs. The potential of Syzygium cumini, Ficus benghalensis and Psidium guajava against resistant bacteria in combination can be explored as an alternative green method against resistant bacteria. 

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Anthropometric Study of the Human Craniofacial Morphology among different castes of Punjab Pakistan
Mian Sahib Zar, Taslim Rubab, Muhammad Zahid Qureshi, Muhammad Aslam Khan, Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar, Oskar Nowak, pages 216-222

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 Background: It appears from the literature that there is a research vacuum in craniofacial anthropometric studies in Pakistani population. Therefore, this study was carried out to characterize the craniofacial parameters among different castes of the Punjab Pakistan.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on population of the Punjab, Pakistan, with age 18-45 years in a normal healthy state and data was collected using a questionnaire. Anthropometric instruments such as standard spreading caliper, round ended caliper, vernier caliper and scale were used for the measurement of craniofacial parameters. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0 and MS Excel 16. Morphological anthropometry of face, head, nose and ears was observed and noted.

Results: Hyperleptoprosopic face was most common one in the studied population. The dominant nose type was Leptorrhine while the most dominant head shape was Dolichocephalic. The average ear index was 50.42 and 51.19 of right and left ears, respectively.

Conclusion: This data is a base for the anthropometric data bank of the Punjab province of Pakistan. This data is helpful in medico legal cases, forensic investigations, and in facial surgeries. This study is also important for anthropological and forensic research. 

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Sexual dimorphism in the lip size and finger pattern by digital method- A cross-sectional study
Raviteja Vanguru, Swetha Pasupuleti, Naga Supriya Alapati, Ravikanth Manyam, Akshatha BK, Premalatha BR, pages 223-227

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 Background: Human lips recognition is most intriguing and growing method in human identification. The lip prints are unique among individuals and shown to have a prospective role in sex identification. The fingerprints of an individual can be used in instances like criminological, civil cases due to their inimitable property for absolute identity. The study aims to identify fingerprint pattern and lip size for identification of gender.

Methods: This study involved 100 dentistry students from our college (50 male and 50 female).The thumb, lip photos were recorded by using a digital camera. The lip size was calculated by using Adobe photoshop software. The fingerprints patterns were by read by using the classification given by Michael and Kucken's.

Results: Males had more lip length and width when compared to females which are statistically significant(p=0.000). The predominant fingerprint pattern in the entire study was loop (67%) followed by whorl (23%) and then arch (10%). The arch pattern of fingerprint showed a statistical significance between males and females (p=0.008).

Conclusion: In the present study, lip length, lip width and fingerprint pattern showed a significant difference in males and females which can be used to determine an individual's gender. Moreover, employing digital method in analysing the fingerprints and lip-prints is very convenient in terms of accessibility and storage. 

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Plastic Biodegradation Potential of Soil Mangrove Mold Isolated from Wonorejo, Indonesia
Nengah Dwianita Kuswytasari, Alfia Rahma Kurniawati, Aunurohim, Nur Hidayatul Alami, Enny Zulaika, Maya Shovitri, Nimerta Kumari, Arif Luqman, pages 228-238

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 Background: Plastic has become one of the most significant environmental threats, especially in mangrove areas due to their non-biodegradable nature. This indicates that there is a need to find alternative degradation methods for these materials, such as the use of mold. Therefore, this study aims to isolate potential plastic degradation mold from the Wonorejo mangrove sediments.

Methods: The isolates were identified based on their morphological characteristic and ITS rDNA sequence. Plastic degradation ability of the samples was evaluated using parameters of plastic dry weight loss, FTIR pattern, SEM, and AFM image.

Results: A total of eight sediment mold were identified, including Perenniporia spp., Trametes polyzonaAspergillus terreusPorostereum spadiceumLeptosphaerulina chartarumAspergillus fumigatus, and Hypocreales sp. Among these molds, the best activity was exhibited by Aspergillus terreus, which degraded 12.5% LDPE and 4.9% white plastic after 30 days, followed by Perenniporia sp. with 10.6% LDPE and 3.4% white plastic degradation. Furthermore, the SEM and AFM images showed that the surface of plastic was damaged after incubation. There were also several attenuations of particular peaks, which indicated the occurrence of chemical changes along plastic chains belonging to the C-H alkane group at wavenumber 2914.94, 2847.38, and 1471 cm-1. Enzyme produced by mold in this study were measured qualitatively. Perenniporia sp. produced laccase, manganese peroxidase, alkane hydroxylase, and lipase. Trametes polyzona also secreted similar enzyme, except lipase, while Porostereum spadiceum was negative for alkane hydroxylase. Aspergillus terreus isolates were positive for lipase and alkane hydroxylase, but Aspergillus fumigatus only produced lipase.

Conclusion: In this study, 8 mold with plastic biodegradation potential by producing various enzyme were identified. 

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Comparative Antibacterial Analysis of Four Different Medicinal Plants Against Human Skin Flora
Rabeea Anwar, Humaira Yasmeen, Muhammad Nauman Sharif, Saigha Marriam, Rukkaya Alam, Shakeel Hussain, Iqra Arooj, Zeshan Ali, pages 239-248

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 Background: As we are facing continuously increasing antibiotic resistance, increased infections, diseases and pandemics, the researching community is turning to find the solutions from nature and plants play a vital role in this scenario. Pakistan due to its unique geography and a variety of climatic zones harbors a huge floral diversity.

Methods: In this study extracts of four plants of Pakistan namely Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa, Moringa oleifera and Eucalyptus camaldulensis prepared by Aqueous. Ethanol and Methanol extract preparation methods were examined for their phytochemical content by employing various reagents and methods like foam test for saponins, xanthoprotein test for proteins, Braemar’s test for tannins etc. Antibacterial activity against stored human skin flora samples was performed using the agar well diffusion assay and statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA one way analysis on Microsoft Excel 2010.

Result: Each plant extract exhibited antibacterial activity and statistical analysis performed for extracts of each plant showed p value for A. indica as 0.36 (P > 0.05), for C. longa as 0.09 (P > 0.05), for M. oleifera as 0.67 (P > 0.05) and for E. camaldulensis as 0.02 (P < 0.05), which indicates significant antibacterial activity of E. camaldulensis depending on the size of zones of inhibition produced by it. 

Conclusion: All the extracts prepared from selected plants showed some degree of antibacterial activity against the human skin flora that can also act as opportunistic pathogen. This supports the use of traditionally used plants and herbs for fighting present day soaring health related issues as antimicrobial resistance. Study also suggests further investigations for estimating exact concentrations of extracts to be used that work efficiently in relevant cases and molecular mechanism of action of these extracts. 

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Association Mapping Study of Various Desirable Traits of Rice
Sumaira Aslam Chohan, Muhammad Ashfaq, Farah Khan, pages 249-258

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 Background: This study was performed to evaluate the diversity of various morphological characters and their relationship with yield in rice.  The goal of this work was to find quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield, yield components, and other agronomic variables in 100 different rice germplasm samples, as well as to assess the genetic structure and degree of linkage disequilibrium in the rice germplasm diversity panel.  To establish Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) between markers and causative mutations, marker density is essential. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns of various SNP markers on all chromosomes. If markers are sufficiently dense to have good coverage of LD, the LD decay with distance can be compared to the marker density.

Methods: Different traits were measured and recorded under Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) experiment. DNA extraction and PCR analysis was done to measure the genotypic characteristics of rice. Genotypic and phenotypic variability was measured by using ANOVA and GWAS.

Results: For pair-wise markers, linkage disequilibrium is calculated as R square and plotted versus the distance between the markers. In this study, the overall phenotypic variability among the examined traits was represented by R2 and ranged from 11.47% to 25.44%. The genetic architecture of these traits may be implied by the recently identified genomic regions (loci). An influential replacement for bi-parental gene maps, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) use data from genome-wide markers in large amounts of easily obtained germplasm.

Conclusion: The linkage disequilibrium, which is the non-random link between an allele at two or more loci, is used in this mapping method to infer the innate relationships between phenotypic variations and marker polymorphisms. Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) of genotypes provides the information about for the selection of genotypes and determination of new marker trait association. 

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Anatomical transition of trilaminar cerebellar cortex between reptiles and Aves
Naheed Khan, Khalida Perveen, Mushtaq Hussain, Rabia Qadeer Malik, Shaheen Sharafat, pages 259-264
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 Background: Motor coordination in vertebrates is primarily regulated by cerebellum. Divergence of Aves from reptilian ancestors results in noticeable improvement in the motor coordination. This study aims to explore anatomical innovations in the cerebellar cortex during the course of evolution of reptiles and Aves.

Methods: Three representative species each from reptilian and avian lineages were selected to represent both vertebrate classes. Complete brain was dissected out from the cranial cavity of each specimen after radiological assessment of its extent. After gross examination, the brains were subjected to detailed histological investigation using conventional and special strains. Micrometry of layer and cellular architecture of cerebellar cortex were undertaken digitally using ImageJ and statistically compared using GraphPad Prism.

Results: Grossly, significant increase (p<0.0001) in brain mass, brain volume and cerebellar volume was observed in Aves compared to reptiles. Histo-morphometric analyses of granular and molecular layers of cerebellum showed statistically significant decrease (p<0.0001) in the thickness of avian representatives compared to reptilian counterparts. Similarly significant decrease (p<0.0001) in the Inter-Purkinje neuronal distance was observed in Aves compared to reptiles. Conversely, increase cellular and neuronal count (p=0.0332 to <0.0001) count was observed in all three layers of avian cerebellum in comparison to reptiles. This suggests increased cellular packaging and/or density in the avian cerebellum compared to reptiles. 

Conclusion: In summary, significant increase in the cellular density and differentiation in the cerebellum of avian representatives may provide anatomical basis of increased motor coordination in Aves compared to reptiles. 

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Serological and Hematological Studies of the Blood of Calves in the Experimental Use of the Medication Triazavirin
Tatiana Reshetnikova, Tatyana Krylova, pages 265-269
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 Background: In intensive animal husbandry management, the high disease occurrence in young animals remains an urgent problem, which is a direct consequence of the crowded placement of animals and insufficiently strong immune systems. The paper describes the study of the effect of the antiviral medication Triazavirin on the activity of humoral immunity and the level of specific antibodies in the blood serum of calves.

Methods: Hematological and serological studies were carried out. The experiment involved 40 calves of the black-and-white breed, aged one month, with an average weight of 50 kg, without clinical signs of diseases. For this experiment, two groups of calves were formed using the analog method. The animals in the first and second groups received the medication in dosages of 62.5 mg and 1,000 mg by inhalation and orally, respectively.

Results: In the first group, hematological studies showed the presence of leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, and agranulocytosis. When studying the level of antibodies in the blood serum, a decrease in the level of antibodies was discovered, which indicates a therapeutic effect and a decrease in the number of viral particles. The titer level of specific antibodies was at the same level, which was associated with taking the medication and activating adaptive mechanisms of the body's defense. In hematological studies of the blood of animals of the second group, leukocytosis was noted. When studying the level of antibodies in the blood serum, it was noted that the level of antibodies had decreased by 40%. The titer level of specific antibodies was at the same level.

Conclusion: The results obtained made it possible to recommend the use of the antiviral medication in question for the treatment of respiratory diseases in calves. The authors present conclusions on the effectiveness of the inhalation route of administration of the medication for viral pathogenic agent control. 

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Lawsonia inermis seeds cotyledon and coat extracts as a potential antimicrobial agent
Sami F. Abdalla, Lujayne Yassir Elnour, Nehad M. Abdulaziz, Ahmed Hassan Idries, Makarim Elfadil M. Osman, Emadeldin H. Konozy, pages 270-275
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 Background: The plant Lawsonia inermis, which is a member of the Lythraceae family, has long been used to cure a number of diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated the antibacterial capabilities of the plant's components. However, neither the efficiency of these extracts on bacterial strains that are antibiotic-resistant nor a systematic analysis of the extracts from the various seed components have been conducted. 

Methods: The coat part was separated from the cotyledon. Each part was pulverized and extracted with ethanol, acetone, and hexane. The inhibitory effects of the resulting extracts were tested on three pathogenic bacterial strains and a fungus. The effect of the extracts on antibiotic-resistant bacteria was also evaluated.

Results: When tested against pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Candida albicans), L. inermis seed parts (cotyledon and coat) showed varying levels of antibacterial and antifungal activity. In which the ethanolic extract outperformed the acetonic extract in effectiveness. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each pathogenic microorganism was established. Utilizing the extract yield, total antibacterial activity (TAA) was calculated. Lawsonia inermis seed components inhibited antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, with strong antibacterial activity seen in aqueous extracts of their cotyledons and coats.

Conclusion: We summarize that Lawsonia inermis seed extracts, which have historically been used as secure antimicrobials for human healthcare and cosmetics have the potential to replace current antimicrobial agents that are no longer effective. Moreover, may be a promising source for the isolation of potent drugs for the treatment of bacterial diseases. 

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Evaluating the Epidemic Risk Posed by Marek's Disease Virus in Russia
Anna Kilp, Vasiliy Afonyushkin, Tatiana Mironova, Yulia Kozlova, Viktoriya Cherepushkina, Natalya Yakovleva, Lyudmila Ermakova, Tatiana Kalinina, Nikolay Donchenko, pages 276-281
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 Background: The highly oncogenic avian alpha herpes virus known as Marek's disease virus (MDV) raises concerns about its potential oncogenicity in humans. In this article, authors examine the potential epidemic risks associated with MDV, taking into account the current epidemic and epizootic situation in the Russian Federation, with a particular focus on the modern practices of pig and poultry farming. Given its oncogenic properties, MDV remains a cause for concern in the field of avian herpesviruses.

Methods: The study was conducted in 2010-2022 in poultry farms Russian Federation, Republic of Belarus and the Republic of Kazakhstan where authors monitored the rate of vesicular enteritis and MDV. In total, 155 epizootics were examined, including the analysis of 62 epizootics of vesicular enteritis and the population of the studied area exceeded 1 million people.

Results: The authors of the study found that vesicular enteritis, distributed over poultry farms in the Russia since 2011, and its safety for the population remains unknown. The increasing incidence of vesicular enteritis was also accompanied by various health issues in contact persons and veterinary personnel, as well as abnormal and in sync increases in infectious laryngotracheitis and MDV in young birds.

Conclusion: Authors come to the conclusion that the consequences of COVID-19 are accompanied by a deficiency of folic acid, which in turn leads to a risk of developing diseases associated with DNA viruses.It is concluded that MDV may contribute to the development of reproductive and breast cancers, highlighting the need for increased awareness and attention to the health risks associated with poultry farming and further research in this area. 

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Risk Factors for Non-typhoidal Salmonella Contamination in chicken meat: A cross-sectional study on Traditional Markets in Surabaya
Freshinta Jellia Wibisono, Reina Puspita Rahmaniar, Dandi Ernando Syaputra, Zuriya Zuriya, Khoirul Muhroni Aziz, Lusitania Darmayanti Ikeng, Mustofa Helmi Effendi, Agumah Nnabuife Bernard, pages 282-288
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 Background: Food of animal origin with good quality is needed by the community. Poor environmental conditions especially bad sanitary conditions are a factor in the entry of microbes. This study aims to identify the presence and risk factors of non-typhoidal Salmonella contamination of chicken meat sold in traditional markets of Surabaya City.

Methods: Chicken meat samples and Questionnaires from the traders (respondents) were collected for this study. A total of 117 samples were used.  Isolation and identification of non-typhoidal Salmonella-causing contamination were carried out using standard microbiological techniques. The risk factors for contamination considered in this study included: the cleanliness of chicken meat, means of transporting the meat, market sanitation, and tool sanitation.

Results: The identification test results showed that 42.74% (50/117) were positive for Salmonella enterica contamination. The significance test results indicated a positive relationship between risk factors and the presence of non-typhoidal Salmonella contamination of chicken meat in the traditional markets in Surabaya. 

Conclusion: The fulfillment of standards of hygiene and sanitation in traditional markets can prevent contamination by non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteria in chicken meat. Proper handling of chicken meat can increase the fulfillment of the need for safe and healthy protocols for public health requirements.

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Neuroprotective effects of ferulic acid and thymoquinone against deltamethrin-induced neurotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster
Hala Abdulbaki, Mohammad Ali Al-Deeb, pages 289-297
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 Background: Recent research indicates a link between exposure to pyrethroid pesticides and negative neurodevelopmental outcomes such as neurodegenerative disorders, low intelligence quotient (IQ), and attention disorders. Thus this study aims (1) to investigate the effect of exposing Drosophila melanogaster adult male flies to 0.59 µM deltamethrin (DLM) for 24 h on their survival, climbing behavior, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, as well as the gene expression levels of pleddcdataanat1dop1r1dop2r, and dopecr genes, and (2) to assess the protective effect of 250 µM Ferulic acid (FA), 25 µM Thymoquinone (TQ), and their combinations on the survival, climbing behavior, and AChE activity of D. melanogaster adult male flies exposed to 0.59 µM DLM for 72 h.

Methods: In the first experiment, adult male wild-type flies were exposed to DLM incorporated into a 10% sucrose solution for 24 h, whereas, in the second experiment, they were exposed to DLM and the individual neuroprotective agents, or their mixture for 72 h.

Results: Flies exposed to DLM exhibited higher mortality rates and shorter climbing distances in the negative geotaxis assay compared to control flies. Additionally, exposure to DLM upregulated the genes ddcdatdop1r1dop2r, and dopecr significantly. Moreover, exposure to DLM for 72 h resulted in higher mortality rates and severe locomotor defects. However, the neuroprotective agents were effective in mitigating these toxic effects. While DLM inhibited AChE activity, concurrent exposure to FA ameliorated the inhibition.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates the efficacy of natural compounds in reducing DLM-induced toxicity in D. melanogaster and highlights the potential use of this model in studying and developing therapeutic strategies for movement disorders. 

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Prospects for the Therapeutic Potential of Inhibitors Targeting JNK and p53 in Alzheimer's Disease

Gleb Zyuz`kov, Larisa Miroshnichenko, Alexander Chayikovskyi, Larisa Kotlovskaya, pages 298-303
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 Background: It is promising to search for fundamentally new approaches to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) within the framework of creating methods for stimulating neurogenesis and developing a strategy for targeted pharmacological regulation of intracellular signal transduction in regenerative-competent cells (RCCs). Of particular interest in this case are JNK and p53. The purpose of the work was to investigate the possibility of regulating the RCCs functions using JNK and p53 inhibitors in the modelling β-amyloid-induced neurodegeneration (βAIN) in vitro.

Methods: The studies were performed using C57BL/6 mice. To model βAIN in vitro, the 25-35 fragment Amyloid β(βA) was used. The effect of the JNK inhibitors (SP600125) and p53 (Pifithrin-a, Cyclic) on the functioning of different types of progenitors and glial cells of the subventricular zone of the cerebral hemispheres (SVZ)was studied. NPCs, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglial cells were isolated from SVZ cells using immunomagnetic separation.

Results:  We found the ability of the JNK inhibitor to stimulate the proliferation of NSCs and NPCs in βAIN simulation. While the p53 inhibitor is characterized by stimulatory activity in relation to the proliferation of only committed neuronal precursors under conditions of neurotoxic exposure to βA. In addition, inhibition of JNK and p53 resulted in stimulation of the secretion of neurotrophins by oligodendrocytes and microglial cells in the in vitro βAIN model.

Conclusion: The results indicate the potential ability of the JNK inhibitor to most consistently stimulate the implementation of the proregenerative properties of progenitor and neuroglial cells in AD. 

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Simultaneous intratracheal administration of surfactant and budesonide in the prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants
Mandana Kashaki, Elahe Norouzi, Arezoo Aminyan Daryasari, Mahsa Maleki, Fahimeh Farhanian, pages 304-308
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 Background: Premature birth is an important issue in developing and developed countries. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of budesonide and surfactant in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome and the prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).

Methods: In a randomized clinical trial study, 296 premature babies with a gestational age of less than 37 weeks and weigh below 1500 grams admitted to Shahid Akbarabadi Hospital in Tehran (Iran) who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome and needed treatment with surfactant were included in the study. In one group (surfactant), 4 cc/kg surfactant (Braksurf) was injected intratracheally, and in the other group (surfactant + budesonide), in addition to surfactant (Braksurf), 0.25 mg/kg of budesonide was prescribed along with intratracheal surfactant. Descriptive statistics including Kaplan-Meier, Chi-square test and  t-Student test were used for data analysis.

Result: In infants who were administered budesonide with surfactant through a tracheal tube, the duration of mechanical ventilation, the duration of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and the need to receive peripheral equipment or through channel The nose was significantly less than the babies who received only surfactant. In the surfactant group, 13 infants (8.7%) and in the surfactant + budesonide group, 4 infants (2.7%) had bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Conclusion: The use of the combination of surfactant (Braksurf) with budesonide compared to surfactant alone in the treatment of premature infants significantly reduced the need for respiratory support and the need for intubation and duration of hospitalization and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

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Advancements in Life Sciences (ISSN 2310-5380) provides free platform for the fast peer-reviewed publication of articles covering novel and innovative aspects of biological sciences. Including full length research articles and short communications, we accept material in other categories too view other submission materials. This Journal publishes articles falling in the scope of “life sciences” ranging from molecular biological or genetic discoveries to biochemical systems and new microbiological concepts in human, veterinary and plant sciences. Multidisciplinary research articles, providing novel insight and original information, that would not be publishable in single discipline devoted journals are welcomed particularly in this journal for publication. The following research areas are covered in the Journal:

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