Current Issue

Advancements in Life Sciences, volume 5, issue 2

Published online: 25-February-2018
ISSN 2310-5380 

IN THIS ISSUE

 

Review Articles


WTO’s Implications on Agriculture Sector in Pakistan: Threats, Opportunities and Possible Strategies

Naeem Ullah Khan, Muhammad Ashfaq, pages 30-36

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 The WTO trading system is a fact of life. This is only organization which can manage the challenges of globalization. There are both opportunities and threats for the member states in relation to different sectors of economy like agriculture.  This paper examines that Pakistan has a great potential to produce and export agricultural commodities in the international markets.  In order to achieve maximum benefits from the WTO, Pakistan has to take strong and immediate steps in the light of SPS and TBT Agreement that are germane with agriculture sector.  In this connection Pakistan has achieved GSP+ status by European Union which gives a great opportunity to Pakistan to improve its agricultural standards and enhance its export in European agricultural markets.  The paper also recommends some possible solutions to improve the agriculture standards in Pakistan. In all countries farming system play a very important role for increasing crop production and strengthen the economy of the country. Government sector should also play a vital role to educate the farmers with new planting techniques and strategic plans for the production of good quality disease free crops. Based on results and conclusion development of extension program, utilization of proper management techniques, utilization of high quality seed, government support, infrastructure and market opportunities are the dire need for farmers and agriculture of Pakistan. 

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Production of Remedial Proteins through Genetically Modified Bacteria

Fatima Tariq, Muhammad Azmat Ullah Khan, Saqib Shahzad, Wajeeha Batool Chaudry, Amina Arif, Ghazaleh Gharib, pages 37-45

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 Recombinant DNA technology has created biological organisms with advanced genetic sequences and has been extensively used to express multiple genes for therapeutic purposes when expressed in a suitable host. Microbial systems such as prokaryotic bacteria has been successfully utilized as a heterologous systems showing high therapeutic potency for various human diseases. Bioengineered bacteria have been successfully utilized for producing therapeutic proteins, treating infectious diseases, and disease arise due to increasing resistance to antibiotics. Prominently E. colifound to be the most widely used expression system for recombinant therapeutic protein production i.e. hormones, enzymes and antibodies. Besides E. coli, non-pathogenic lactic acid bacteria has also been considered as an excellent candidate for live mucosal vaccine. Likewise, S. typhimuriumhas been deployed as attenuated type of vaccination as well as in treatment strategy of various cancers due to its ability of wide progression in tumors. The present article is a summarized view of the main achievements and current developments in the field of recombinant therapeutics using bacterial strains focusing on their usability in therapeutics and future potential. 

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Full Lenght Research Articles


Prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C Virus infections among male to female (MFT) transgenders in Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

Hashaam Akhtar, Yasmeen Badshah, Samar Akhtar, Faheem Hasan, Muhammad Faisal, Najam us Sahar Sadaf Zaidi, Ishtiaq Qadri, pages 46-55

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 Background: Transgenders are the individuals, who due to certain psychological or physical requirement mismatch with their naturally received genders. Among transgender types, male to female (MTF) transgenders are highly prevalent in Indo-Pak and are feared to be at high risk for sexually transmitted viral (human immunodeficiency virus HIV, hepatitis B virus HBV, hepatitis C virus HCV and Epstein Barr virus EBV) and bacterial diseases (gonorrhea, syphilis, campylobacter, chancroid, shigella, granuloma inguinale and chlamydia). This sensitive issue, therefore, requires more attention of researchers, policy-makers, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Pakistan. Methods: Prevalence of HCV and HBV infection was studied in 306 transgender males with a median age of 29 years (range 15-64years) living in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Molecular techniques such as ELISA and Nested PCR were performed to confirm the presence of the both viruses in each sample of subjects.  Furthermore, logistic regression and chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. Results: This study showed that occurrence of HCV infection was predominant among the studied group; whereas presence of HBV was insignificant and was not included for statistical analysis. PCR confirmed that 25.5% of the test group was HCV positive, with the highest percentage (83.33 %) of HCV positive among the individuals who claimed safe sex practices and had knowledge about the medical condition of their partners. 34.61% of the transgender men who shave outside their homes, were found to be HCV positive. Conclusion: In light of these statistics, ignoring this threat could be dangerous not only for the transgender community but also for the society, in general. 

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Marker Assisted Selection for Relative Water Content, Excised leaf Water Loss and Cell Membrane Stability in Cotton

Muhammad Asif Saleem, Muhammad Waqas Amjid, Muhammad Qadir Ahmad, Etrat Noor, Abdul Qayyum, Masood Iqbal Awan, Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Nauman, pages 56-60

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 Background: Drought stress is a major limitation in agricultural productivity. In cotton, drought tolerance is a multi-genic trait. The quantitative trait loci (QTLs), conferring drought tolerance in cotton, could be exploited for stress breeding using marker assisted selection. Methods: We have screened drought related varieties of Pakistan using DNA markers to identify reported QTLs for drought tolerance. A total of 44 of these varieties were selected. All varieties were sown in the field to record relative water content, excised leaf water loss and cell membrane stability under drought stress condition. QTLs for relative water content, excised leaf water loss and cell membrane stability were checked from all varieties by using DNA markers NAU-2954, NAU-2715, NAU-6672, NAU-8406 and NAU-6790. Results: Genotypic and phenotypic results showed that the QTL for relative water content qtlRWC-1 present on chromosome 23, linked marker NAU-2954, could be a major QTL conferring drought tolerance in cotton. Using Marker Assisted Selection the variety CRIS-134 showed all concerned QTLs for drought tolerance. Conclusion: QTL for relative water content qtlRWC-1 could be a major QTL for drought stress tolerance in cotton. The variety CRIS-134 may be used for breeding drought tolerant cultivar. 

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RETRACTED: Association of anti C1q and ds-DNA levels with the pathogenesis of Lupus Nephritis among SLE patients

Zara Sohail, Arshad Jamal, Sajjad ullah, Khurshid Iqbal, Ahmed Bilal Waqar, pages 61-66

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 Background: Lupus nephritis (LN) is the most common and serious complication associated with SLE and it results in significant morbidity and mortality. It is known by several studies that patients of LN have higher levels of anti-dsDNA and anti-C1q compared with SLE patients without renal involvement. The current study was designed to determine and compare the level of anti-dsDNA and anti-C1q in patients of SLE with and without lupus nephritis in the Pakistani population. This current study was also aimed at providing proof that anti-C1q levels are more prominent in LN/non-LN SLE as compared to anti-dsDNA. This project may help in the determination of results in Pakistan and contribute to the further confirmation of the sensitivity of anti-C1q. Method: The patient samples were collected from Sheikh Zayed hospital, Lahore. These patients were clinically diagnosed by the Rheumatologists as SLE and LN positive on the basis of ACR and SLEDAI scoring criteria. This study was performed and samples were analyzed in the Department of Medical and Laboratory Sciences, Imperial College of Business Study, Lahore on the patient’s serum by ELISA technique. Result: About 38% (12) patients with LN were positive for anti-dsDNA and 31% (9) SLE patients without LN were positive whereas about 38.7% (12) were anti-dsDNA negative in LN cases and 58.6% (17) in SLE without LN. In case of anti-C1q 100% (31) of these LN patients were positive and 93.1% (27) patients SLE without LN showed positive anti C1q results. Only 6.9% (2) patients showed negative results for anti-C1q in LN negative patients. Conclusion: The higher levels of anti-C1q suggest that it may be a better diagnostic marker for LN than that of anti-dsDNA and that it can be helpful in the prognosis of SLE patients. 

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Genome-Wide Identification of Natural Selection Footprints in Bos Indicus Using Principal Component Analysis

Hamid Mustafa, Waqas Ahmad Khan, Tad Sonstegard, Yi Li, Noor Ul Ain, Adeela Ajmal, pages 67-72

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 Background: To describe natural selection, numerous analytical methods for ascertaining candidate genomic region have been developed. There is a substantial drive in population genomics to identify loci intricate in local adaptation. A potent method to find genomic regions subject to local adaptation is to genotype numerous molecular markers and look for outlier loci. Methods: In this study, population structure and genome wide footprints scan of natural selection in cattle was performed using principal component analysis based on alternative individual method assumed in the PCAdapt R-package. This method was used on the hypothesis that extremely related population markers are also local population adaptation candidates. To test PCAdaptmethod in cattle, the data of sixty three animals were collected from four different origins or agro-ecological zones (Achai = 18, Cholistani = 13, Lohani = 19, and Tharparkar = 13) and genotyped using the high density SNPs BeadChip. Results: As expected from the sampling from different zones the principal component result indicated the clear division in these animals into three clusters. K=3 was the optimal number suggested by eigenvalues. Conclusion: The result of this study revealed that the genomic regions harboring signals of the candidate genes were associated with immunity system and muscle formation. Signature of selection detecting in this study targeted the historical adaptation in these breeds that will be useful in future to understand cattle origin under different environment. 

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