Current Issue

 

Advancements in Life Sciences, volume 5, issue 4

Published online: 25-August-2018
ISSN 2310-5380 

IN THIS ISSUE

 

Review Article


3D-Bioprinting: A stepping stone towards enhanced medical approaches

Hajra Ashraf, Bisma Meer, Romasa Naz, Aarooj Saeed, Haleema Sadia, Usmara Sajid, Kanwal Nisar, Zunaira Aslam, Pervez Anwar, pages 143-153

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 In the past few decades, tissue engineering has been seen unprecedented escalation driving the field of artificial tissue and organ construct and brought metamorphosis in regenerative medicine. Prime advancement has been attained through the expansion of novel biomanufacturing approaches to devise and convene cells in three dimensions to fabricate tissue contrive. Accompaniment manufacturing differently known as 3D bioprinting is leading prime innovation in a number of applications in life sciences such as tissue and organ construct, personalized drug dosing, cancer model and heart tissue engineering. Overall, this review summarizes most prevalent bioprinting technologies; including laser-based bioprinting, extrusion bioprinting, injection bioprinting, stereolithography as well as biomaterial such as bioink. It also explores 3D industries, approaches such as Biomimicry, autonomous self-assembly, mini tissues and biomedical applications. Existing challenges that impede clinical mileage of bioprinting are also discussed along with future prospective. 

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Full Lenght Research Articles


Detection and comparison of light metals in hair among workers of different industries using Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) for forensic casework
Muhammad Saqib Shahzad, Saeeda Kalsoom, Javed Iqbal Bajwa, Amina Arif, Muhammad Azmat Ullah Khan, pages 154-157

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 Background: The study was planned to evaluate the deposition of some metals in the scalp hair of the people working in the particular environment. Scalp hair samples were collected from different industry workers including pharmaceutical, textile and paint industry and analyzed for the determination of aluminum (Al), calcium (Ca), potassium (K) and sulfur (S). Hair analysis provides a better assessment of light metals present in the surroundings, as well as monitoring of variation of metals from place to place. Methods: The hair samples were collected from 21-55 years old employees working in industry for more than four years. Workers of the age less than 20 years and less than 4 years working experience were not including in this study. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) system was used to detect the light metals from hair and probable matches were searched through National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) library. Results: The metals Al, S, K and Ca concentration was found maximum in the pharmaceutical industry workers. i.e., 575.1 µg/g, 190.7 µg/g, 11.1 µg/g and 9.1 µg/g respectively. The minimum concentration so these metals was found in paint industry workers i.e. 103.7 µg/g, 8.87 µg/g, 2.3 µg/g, and 1.7µg/g respectively. Conclusion: Light metal concentrations in hair samples showed a significant positive correlation. Our findings can play vital role for health departments and industrial environmental management system (EMS) authorities in policy making and implementation. Taken all together, the workers were facing minor health implications in these industries and need immediate protective measures to remediate the current situation.  

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Expression level of serum Interleukin-37 in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients and its correlation with Disease Activity Score
Nimrah Akram, Arshad Jamal, Sajjad Ullah, Ahmed Bilal Waqar, Khurshid Iqbal, pages 159-165

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 Background: Interleukin-37 (IL-37) is a member of IL-1 cytokine family. IL-37 immunosuppresses the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis via down-regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the expression level of IL-37 in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and its correlation with the disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS-28). Methods: In the current study, forty-six RA patients, having a ratio of 19 males and 27 females, and twenty healthy controls (11 males and 9 females) were included. DAS-28 was measured on the basis of patients’ clinical observations of the tender and swollen joints, physical examination and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). ESR was measured according to the Westergren method. Serum IL-37 level was measured by ELISA. Depending upon the DAS28 calculations the patients were divided in four groups as; 19 in remission, 6 had mild disease activity, 6 were in moderate state and 15 patients were found with severe disease activity.Results: Serum IL-37 levels were found markedly raised in RA patients (mean = 862.6) than in healthy individuals (mean ± SD = 4.4 ± 1.74 pg/ml). Further, our results suggest that level of IL-37 increased significantly from mild (mean ± SD = 829.17 ± 61.40 pg/ml) to moderate (mean ± SD = 1307.5 ± 165.1 pg/ml) and severe (mean ± SD = 1607 ± 86.8 pg/ml) disease prognosis. Conclusion: Thus we conclude, IL-37 has a positive correlation with DAS28 and thus has a potential role in RA pathogenesis.  

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Prevalence of Hepatitis C and associated risk factors among pregnant women of district Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Zobia Afsheen, Bashir Ahmad, Huang Linfang, pages 166-170

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 Background: The epidemiological study of Hepatitis caused by Hepatitis C viruses during pregnancy is absolutely necessary for program managers and health planners. Currently, enough data exist regarding viral hepatitis among pregnant women in various districts of KP, Pakistan, however, proper published data from district Nowshera is not available. The study was aimed at determining the prevalence of hepatitis C infection along with its associated risk factors among pregnant women who attended the antenatal clinics at district Nowshera, KP. Methods: One hundred and fifty (150) blood samples were obtained from pregnant women attending antenatal centers at district headquarter hospital Nowshera. Rapid immune-chromatographic technique (ICT) was used for detection of antibodies against HCV. Further confirmation of antibodies was done using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) followed by Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detection of HCV RNA. Results: Among 150 pregnant women, 7 (4.66%) were positive for HCV of which 5 (3.33%) were found positive for Anti-HCV antibodies while 2(1.33%) showed positivity for HCV-RNA. A significant association of age (x2 = 9.345, df = 3, P = 0.025), Gravidity (x2 = 9.15, df = 2, P = 0.010), education (x2 = 48.00, df = 5, P = 0.000), and Blood Transfusion (x2 = 4.629, df = 1, P = 0.031) was found with prevalence of HCV. Conclusion: The study revealed 4.66% HCV prevalence among pregnant women of district Nowshera.  The age, gravidity, and blood transfusion were the risk factors found significantly associated with HCV positivity in pregnant women. Additionally, the educational level of these women was also linked with the viral infection. 

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Molecular Characterization of EGLN1 Gene in Fast and Slow Moving Animals of Diverse Terrain

Rashid Saif, Naila Naz, Beenish Tariq, Ali Iftekhar, pages 171-178

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 Background: Process of animal migration from their habitat to a new environment is always problematic due to low adaptive tendency, which ultimately affect their production, behavior and overall performance. Current study is focused to explore the sequence diversity of EGLN1 gene in relation to animal acclimatization at higher altitude under deprived oxygen or ability of better utilization of oxygen which is considered to be liable for their agility in diverse terrains. Fast and slow moving animals of plain and hilly terrains are potential species to study this phenomenon. Methods: Molecular characterization of EGLN1 gene was performed in sheep, goat, buffalo and camels of Pakistan as slow moving candidate species, while tiger, leopard, wolf, ibex, urial and markhor as fast moving candidate species of diverse terrains by extraction their DNA from whole blood, followed by PCR amplification and sequence analysis of EGLN1 gene through BioEdit software. Later on, certain bioinformatics tools like MEGA, protparam and blast2sequence are used for the characterization of the normal and mutant EGLN1 protein. Results: Current study revealed that goat and camel showed a nucleotide change at c.810 position. While all fast moving animals of higher altitude showed a nucleotide change at position c.406 except one sample of markhor. Conclusion: Current study will assist to have an idea of sequence diversity of aforementioned candidate gene responsible for adaption of animals in oxygen deprived environment of diverse terrain and may be responsible for their agile behaviour of movement.  

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In vitro biochemical evaluation of methanol extract of Moringa oleifera pods on rat liver mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore and lipid peroxidation

Cassandra Elohor Bezi, Adegoke Oluwaseyi Adetunji, Olaoluwa Temitope Talabi, pages 179-184

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 Background: Moringa oleifera is a well-known world herbal plant for its amazing medicinal and nutritional properties. The effect of methanol extract of M. oleifera can be useful in managing diseases associated with mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore and lipid peroxidation. Methods: Evaluation was done at varying concentrations of the methanol pods extract on mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore opening (swelling) and Fe2+- H2O2-EDTA (Fenton reaction)-induced lipid peroxidation in vitro. Five male albino rats (weighed 120-250 g) were anaesthetized and sacrificed; the liver was excised and homogenized to obtain mitochondria pellets. This study analyzed the effect of varying concentrations of methanol pods extract of M. oleifera at 50, 150, and, 300 µg/ml respectively. The effects of M. oleifera varying concentration in vitro was determined using malondialdehyde reaction quantified at 532 nm in a UV- spectrophotometer as index for lipid peroxidation and spectrophotometric absorptions at 520 nm was observed as an index of  mitochondrial membrane permeability pore respectively. Results: Varying concentrations of methanol pods extract of M. oleifera at 50, 150, and 300 µg/ml in the presence and absence of triggering agent (Ca2+) inhibited opening of mitochondria membrane permeability transition pore while 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 mg/ml inhibited lipid peroxidation induced mitochondria of the rat liver respectively in a concentration dependent mode. Conclusion: The results suggest that methanol extract of M. oleifera pods at high concentrations (such as 300 µg/ml and 1.00 mg/ml respectively) may inhibit mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore opening and lipid peroxidation.  

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Rapid RNA Extraction from Eucalyptus tree and its down processing for cloning of dehydrin genes

Ghulam Zahara Jahangir, Shagufta Naz, Muhammad Idrees Khan, Muhammad Zafar Saleem, pages 185-191

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 Background: RNA extraction from tree species like Eucalyptus is very tedious and difficult task. In this study a very short and efficient method of RNA extraction from Eucalyptus has been described. Methods: A very short and efficient protocol of two steps RNA extraction has been optimized for obtaining high quality and pure RNA from different tissue types of Eucalyptus tree. In first step whole nucleic acid was extracted from plant tissues and in second step RNA was purified from nucleic acid mixture. The newly optimized rapid CTAB RNA extraction method was compared with trizol extraction method for efficiency and quality of extracted RNA. Results: The newly optimized rapid CTAB RNA extraction method was found highly efficient and suitable over the trizol method. Three Eucalyptus dehydrin genes the dehydrin-10 (DHN-10), dehydrin-1 (DHN-1), and dehydrin-2 (DHN-2) were successfully amplified, TA cloned into pTZ57/RT vector, and transformed into Top10F’ strain of E.coli. These three Eucalyptus dehydrin genes have been reported for conferring abiotic stress tolerance to the Eucalyptus plant yet have not been reported to be cloned. These cloned genes would be further manipulated for developing abiotic stress tolerance in plants of interest. Conclusion: Rapid CTAB RNA extraction method is a brief and reproducible methodology for a hard job of RNA extraction from tree plants with high phenolic contents.  

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Rapid commercial conversion of agriculture land in Lahore Division, Pakistan

Imtiaz Hassan, pages 192-203

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 Background: Pakistan is experiencing rapid population growth and urbanization which require land in urban areas. Rapid commercial conversion of has dramatically changed agriculture land base. The present conversion policy is not capable to achieve principles and objectives of sustainability especially in agriculture areas. Methods: The methodology includes literature review and collection of data by using random systematic sampling technique. Surveys of key informants, adjoining neighbors and owners of properties were conducted in the field. The study is focused to identify the negative effects of commercial conversion of land uses; major causes of illegal conversion; major driving forces; actors behind the commercial conversion of agriculture land and profit maximization arising from increasing demand of commercial spaces, physical aging of residential building structure leading to obsolesces are the main contributing factors giving rise to commercial conversion of land uses in Lahore Division. Results: The researcher founded that main problems of study area resulting from illegal land conversion include shortage of parking space, security risks, harassment of LDA staff, traffic congestion, environmental pollution, destruction of social life, lack of utility services, abuse of land and poor governance. Conclusion: The commercial conversion is dimensioning agriculture land and development is taking place in piecemeal fashion. The study recommends the dire need of spatial planning, proper zoning, enforcement of value tax, sustainable commercial conversion policy, compact and mixed development policy, sustainable land use planning and development of a planning system with effective enforcement measures which itself guarantee a sustainable land use development and rational utilization of prime agriculture land. 

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Response Surface Methodology for the production of endopolygalacturonase by a novel Bacillus licheniformis

Saqib Hussain Hadri, Muhammad Javaid Asad, Muhammad Zeeshan Hyder, Syed Muhammad Saqlan Naqvi, Tariq Mukhtar, Raja Tahir Mehmood, JH David Wu, pages 204-210

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  Background: Polygalacturonase is one of the most important commercial pectinase. The production cost and the mesophilic nature of the present polygalacturonase is a big problem in its application in the juice industry. A lot of work is going on for the isolation of thermophilic bacterial strains which can utilize pectin as the only carbon source. Methods: Bacterial strains were isolated from rotten fruits and vegetables and cultured at 50 – 70oC. The strains were than screened for endopolygalacturonase activity and identified on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence. Different growth parameters for the production of endopolygalacturonase by Bacillus licheniformis IEB-8 were optimized using Response Surface Methodology under Center Composite Design using JMP-12 software. Endopolygalacturonase was purified in two steps; ammonium sulfate precipitation and then by size exclusion column chromatography. Results: Only four strains, IEB-8, IEB-11, IEB-12 and IEB-13 showed growth above 60oC. Among these four, only IEB-8 was found to be endopolygalacturonase positive, which was identified as Bacillus licheniformis by 16S rRNA gene sequencePurification fold of 2.57 and 7.48 in the specific activity were achieved using ammonium sulfate precipitation and gel filtration chromatography respectively. Molecular weight of the purified endopolygalacturonase was found to be 42 kDa. The purified endopolygalacturonase showed an optimum pH of 7 and optimum temperature of 55oC. Conclusion: Bacillus licheniformis IEB-8 is a novel bacteria which can efficiently be utilized in the industry for the production of endopolygalacturonase very cheaply. Furthermore, the high optimum working temperature of endopolygalacturonase, increases its significance for its industrial applications. 

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