Current Issue

Advancements in Life Sciences, volume 4, issue 3

Published online: 25-May-2017
ISSN 2310-5380 



Short Communication:

Diabetes and Hepatitis C: Two sides of a coin
Muhammad Atif, Sana Arshad, Khursheed Javaid, Maaz ul Hassan, Fayyaz Ahmad, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Imran, Arshad Jamal, Zareen Fatima, Ahmed Bilal Waqar, pages 72-76
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 Background: Hepatitis C virus or HCV is a blood borne pathogen, transmitted primarily via blood, body secretions and by piercing through skin (percutaneous), veins and mucosal surfaces. Prevalence of HCV in Pakistan is 4.5-8%. The prevalence of HCV in diabetic patients is reported to be 14.9% in 2016. Different studies show different prevalence of Hepatitis C in local population of Pakistan. This study was designed to find out the prevalence of HCV in diabetic patients of different age groups and gender. Methods: Blood samples from 259 diabetic patients were collected at Diabetes Testing and Screening Camp arranged by Akhuwat Health Services (AHS) at Township, Lahore. People of all age groups and gender were invited. Results were entered in MS Excel and analyzed on SPSS 19. Results: Out of 259 patients, 53% were females while 47% were males. This study shows the prevalence of HCV in Diabetic Patients as 8%. It was observed in diabetic patients, that females and patients from age group 30-40 years had high prevalence of HCV. Conclusion: The prevalence of Hepatitis C is high in the diabetic patients as compared to general population. HCV has a greater incidence in diabetic females of age group (30-40 years). 

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Full Lenght Research Articles

Effect of Salinity (NaCl) stress on germination and early seedling growth of three medicinal plant species
Fatemeh Bina and Abdolamir Bostani, pages 77-83

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 Background: Salinity stress negatively affects the growth and yield of plants. Due to the increasing demand for products derived from medicinal plants and with regard to the growing problems caused by salinity of arable lands, the use of salt-tolerant species can be a strategic approach to cope with this problem. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of salinity stress on germination and seedling growth of three medicinal plant species. Methods: Seeds of three species of medicinal herbs including isabgol (Plantago ovata L.), zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.) and clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.) were exposed to different concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS·m-1) of sodium chloride (NaCl). Results: It was observed that, except for zucchini, germination was inhibited at higher salinity regimes. NaCl treatment caused a serious decrease in the early seedling growth by means of reduced root and shoot length at higher salinity levels. Regression analysis of studied indices over salinity levels revealed that the highest and lowest slopes of regression lines belonged to isabgol and zucchini, respectively indicating high tolerance of zucchini and also, high sensitivity of isabgol to the imposed salinity levels. Conclusions: Based on the findings, zucchini was able to germinate more than 90% at 40 dS·m-1 of NaCl. Therefore, zucchini is suggested to be cultivated in farmlands which are relatively faced with the problem of soil salinity while, it is recommend that isabgol and clove not to be planted in such soils. 

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Mitochondrial genetic characterization of Gujar population living in the Northwest areas of Pakistan

Inam Ullah, Habib Ahmad, Brian E. Hemphill, Muhammad Shahid Nadeem, Muhammad Tariq, Sadia Tabassum, pages 84-91

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 Background: Diversity of communities with specific cultural, ethnic, lingual and geographical backgrounds makes Pakistani society a suitable study subject to unravel the early human migrations, evolutionary history of population having about 18 ethnic groups. Gujars are mostly Indic-speaking nomadic herders with the claims of multiple origins in the sub-continent. Present study was aimed at the determination of maternal lineage of Gujars by mitochondrial DNA analysis. Methods: Total DNA from the human buccal cells was isolated using modified phenol chloroform method. Purified DNA was used for the PCR amplification of mitochondrial Hyper Variable Region 1 and 2 (HVR1 & 2). The nucleotide sequences of amplified PCR products were used to explore the maternal lineage of the Gujar population residing in Northern Pakistan. Results: Haplotypes, allele frequencies and population data of the mitochondrial control region was determined in 73 unrelated individuals belonging to Gujar ethnic group of Northwest areas of Pakistan. Total 46 diverse haplotypes were identified out of which 29 were found unique with (0.9223) genetic diversity and (0.9097) power of discrimination. Haplogroup R was the most frequent (48%) followed by haplogroup M (45%) and N (7%). Conclusion: We found that the Gujar population has multiple maternal gene pool comprising of South Asian, West Eurasian, East Eurasian, Southeast Asian and fractions of Eastern Asian, Eastern Europe and Northern Asian lineages. This study will contribute for the development of mitochondrial DNA database for Pakistani population. 

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Association patterns of Atrial Fibrillation with symptoms of metabolic syndrome

Saima Sharif, Tasnim Farasat, Saira Rafaqat, Shagufta Naz, Farkhanda Manzoor, Muhammad Saqibpages 92-96

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 Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the common cardiac arrhythmia in which heart beats irregularly usually greater than 100 beats per minutes. AF is well-documented public health problem causing substantial mortality and morbidity. Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a collection of metabolic risk factors like diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and impaired glucose level that exists in one person. The aim of the present study is to find the relation between AF and MS. Methods: 100 patients of AF were sampled from Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore from December, 2014 to June 2015. These patients were divided into two AF groups, 50 without MS and 50 with MS. 25 healthy subjects were also included for the comparison. Lipid profile was assessed by chemistry analyzer and serum insulin was measured by ELISA. Results: In our population, there was significantly high levels of insulin resistance (IR) and obesity in AF groups (without MS and with MS) as compared with healthy subjects (P<0.05). Highly significant differences was observed in relation with other parameters e.g. hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, HDL-C among the studied groups (P<0.05). Significant positive correlation was observed between insulin and lipid profile (TC, TG, LDL) while inverse with HDL. Conclusion: The indictors of metabolic syndrome were significantly correlated with AF in the studied subjects, while IR was found significantly higher in MS group. 

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Characterization of cypermethrin degrading bacteria: A hidden micro flora for biogeochemical cycling of xenobiotics

Farkhanda Jabeen, Mukhtar Ahmed, Fayyaz Ahmed, Muhammad Bilal Sarwar, Sidra Akhtar, Ahmad Ali Shahid, pages 97-107

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 Background: Cypermethrin is a Synthetic Pyrethroid (SP) having widespread applications in agriculture and industrial sector especially in sheep dip formulations and tanneries. Rhizoremediation offers a sustainable, environment-friendly and cost-effective means to carry out remediation of contaminated soils. Methods: Six bacterial strains were screened out and characterized at various doses of cypermethrin, heavy metal salts and antibiotics. The optimum growth conditions were determined for these bacterial isolates. The degradation of cypermethrin was confirmed through the growth of bacteria on minimal media (BHB) with cypermethrin and thin layer chromatographic analysis; retention factor values (Rf) were calculated and compared with standard Rvalues. Results: Growth curve experiments revealed that three bacterial isolates were able to grow in the presence of cypermethrin. Tolerance to the high concentration of heavy metal salts (300µgmL-1) and resistance towards different antibiotics was observed in all three bacterial isolates indicating a positive correlation between pesticide degradation and tolerance to metals and antibiotics. Bacterial strains A-C1 and B-Bwere identified as Xanthomonas maltophilia and B-C2 asAcinetobacter sp. Cypermethrin degradation occurred concomitant with bacterial growth reaching an optical density (OD600) up to 0.869. Conclusion: Microbes present in rhizosphere have potential to mineralize the pesticides. A significant biodegradation of the cypermethrin was observed based on above mentioned lab parameters. These results paved the way for designing a multi-resistant bacterium that can be used to reverse the altered environment. 

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