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Advancements in Life Sciences, volume 6, issue 1

Published online: 25 November 2018
ISSN 2310-5380 

IN THIS ISSUE

 

Review Article


Awareness of Asthma Genetics in Pakistan: A Review with Some Recommendations
Muhammad Farooq Sabar, Muhammad Akram, Farheena Iqbal Awan, Muhammad Usman Ghani, Mariam Shahid, Zafar Iqbal, Samra Kousar, Muhammad Idrees, pages 1-10

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 About 334 million people worldwide have been affected by asthma and additionally 100 million expected to have asthma by the year 2025. Being the sixth most populous and economically developing country and with the increasing trend of urbanization and due to poor health facilities, lacking the knowledge of the causes of the disease, increased pollutant exposures and consanguineous marriages, Pakistani population has greater chances of asthma and allergic diseases. Almost 20% of overall pediatric population of Pakistan is affected by this disease. In the past, only environmental factors were considered responsible for asthma but now it is a well-known fact that genetic factors have major contribution in the development of the disease. Poor knowledge of the possibility of genetics involved in this disease has been very common in both uneducated as well as educated population of this region. There is no doubt today that genetics have a major role in the exhibition of asthma but unlike other Mendelian disorders it cannot easily be identified by a single or a simple set of associated genes, rather small contributions of multiple genes and environmental exposure to asthmatic patients may be found. Our focus in this article is genetic factors of asthma in Pakistan. More than 100 genes associated with asthma have already been reported in different populations worldwide but generally, due to an ignored disease in this region, possible genetic causes, impacts, management and treatment of the disease has rarely been studied in Pakistan. This article was intended to explore some latest developments in asthma genetics, diagnosis, prognosis and management and suggest some recommendations to control this deadly disease. 

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Full Lenght Research Articles


Impact of IL28B gene variants (rs12979860) in peg-IFN therapy against Chronic Hepatitis B Pakistani patients
Irfan Kalam, Sajjad Ullah, Qaisar Ali, Arshad Jamal, Ahmad Bilal Waqar, pages 11-18

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 Background: Genome wide association studies elucidate that IL28B rs12979860 genetic polymorphism has a substantial role as a pretreatment predictor during PEG-IFN therapy in Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, however its role in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is ambiguous. Methods: In this study, we have investigated the role of IL28B variant rs12979860 for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. 200 CHB patients were treated for 24 weeks, then we carried out our study on these patients. Moreover, all patients were investigated for IL28B rs12979860 genotypes CC, CT, TT through RT-PCR. Based on our preliminary results we categorized these patients into two groups i.e. Responder ¢R (n = 104) and Non-responder¢NR (n = 96). Results: The proportion of IL28B CC, CT, TT genotypes were in both responder and non-responder groups as (72.1%, 25.0%, 2.9% vs 53.1%, 40.6%, 6.2% respectively; P = 0.02). In this study CC was the most frequent genotype, which has significant outcome in PEG-IFN therapy in both R and NR groups (72.1% vs 53.1%) (P = 0.03), while CT and TT were found as (25.0% vs 40.6%) (P = 0.1, 2.09% vs 6.2%) (P = 0.3) respectively. Conclusion: Current study clearly demonstrates that IL28B rs12979860 polymorphism is a pretreatment predictor during PEG-IFN therapy in CHB infection, and patients with favorable genotype of rs12979860 (CC) may clear the virus than the non-favorable genotypes (CT, TT) in Pakistani population.  

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Production and Growth Performance of Malayan Gaur x Cattle Hybrid (Selembu) in Malaysia

Mohd Iswadi Ismail, Fazly Ann Zainalabidin, Abdul Samad Akil, Mohd Hafiz Mail, Zawawi Ismail, Abdul Wahid Haron, Abas Mazni Othman, pages 19-23

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 Background: In 1980s, the first gaur x cattle hybrid (Selembu) was born in Malaysia. However the production and domestication of the animal faces many obstacles. The aim of this literature is to report the potential concept for introduction and production of Selembu through hybridization program in Malaysia. Data generated from this study will be useful to strengthen the concept for the production of Selembu for the benefit of the beef industry as well as conserving the genetics of the gaurs in the wild. Methods: Fresh semen was collected from three wild matured Malayan gaur bulls by TM-EEJ technique. The collected semen were evaluate for volume, motility, viability and concentration before undergo cryopreservation. Data on semen collection, analysis and cryopreservation were used as criteria for semen selection during AI into the cow. The conception rate was recorded in each inseminated group. Selembu calves were raised and evaluated their growth performance in farm environment. Results: As a result, we managed to collect and cryopreserve the semen from all three wild gaur bulls. The cryopreserved semen was thawed and insert into cows by AI technique. 13 out of 21 cows in the farm received the gaur semen successful pregnant with Selembu fetus. Conclusion: An improvement in farm management, animal husbandry, breeding program and conservation of wild gaur would benefit the production of Selembu in the future. 

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Saving human lives after natural disaster

Shahnawaz Hassan, pages 24-33

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 Background: In order to secure human lives the post flood disaster management system of different countries of the world was studied at united nation level, international level, individual countries level and at Pakistan level. Flood 2010 affected 11 districts of Punjab adversely but the most affected district was district Muzaffer Garh that is why it was selected as case study. Methods: The methodology includes literature review at international level, national level & local level and collection of data from different key informants. The data has been collected by systematic random sampling. The collected data was then analyzed ascertain the problem with the help of different statistical data analysis techniques. The analysis has given rise to results which lead towards conclusions and finally on the basis of these conclusions recommendation has been made. Results: On the basis of analysis of data different problems have been observed. These relate to DRR based aspects, community participation, flood early warning system, socio economic and housing aspects, preparation of flood hazard maps, awareness to the people about flood prone areas, poor building control, livelihood and job opportunities, occupation of respondents, educational level and public facilities and utilities aspects. Conclusion: On the basis of these afore mentioned results it has been concluded that due to weaker foundation and weaker super structure of houses, lack of community participation, poor flood early warning system, non-preparation of flood hazard maps by District Disaster Management Authority and Tehsil Disaster Management Committee, un-awareness to the people about flood prone areas, lack of effective building control, insufficient livelihood and job opportunities for the people of flood affected areas, low education level and less number of educational and health facilities and non-provision of public facilities and utilities are the main problems which the people of facing in flood prone areas. 

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Molecular typing of Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) isolated from device related infections by SCCmec and PCR-RFLP of coagulase gene

Muhamad Sohail, Zakia Latif, pages 34-40

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 Background: SCCmec and PCR-RFLP are productive and cost-effective methods for epidemiological investigations and source tracking of MRSA. Aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology and molecular characterization of MRSA recovered from device related infection. Methods: A total of 626 MRSA were collected from prosthetic device related infections and subjected for presence of mec gene and SCCmec typing. SCCmec characterized MRSA were subjected for agr typing followed by RFLP genotyping and amplification of PVL gene. Following the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), antibiotic resistance pattern was determined. Results: Of 626 MRSA isolates, 488(78%) were characterized by SCCmec typing. Most common type was SCCmec IV (43%), followed by SCCmec II (25%) SCCmec III (22%) and only 10% was SCCmec V.  SCCmec characterized MRSA strains were 100% resistance to tobramycin and chloramphenicol, 96% resistance to ciprofloxacin and 93% resistance to azithromycin. The genePVL was only present in SCCmec IV. All agr typed MRSA strains were resistance to gentamicin, tobramycin and chloramphenicol. PVL was present in all strains of agr III, 80% of agrIV, 50% of agrII and absent in agrI. RFLP analysis resulted in 16 types of non-duplicate unique bands pattern which were equally distributed among prosthetic device related infection. Conclusion: PVL harboring SCCmec or agr typed MRSA strains are less resistance to antibiotics. RFLP is simple, productive and cost-effective method for molecular typing of MRSA. Correct use of antibiotics and molecular surveillance is indispensable to detect the change in epidemiological and antibiotic resistance trends of MRSA. 

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An In-Silico Approach for the Prediction of miRNAs in Merkel Cell Polyoma Virus and its Target Genes

Gohar Rahman, Bilal Ahmad Mian, Najib Ullah, Huzaifa Khan, Shaker Khan, pages 41-47

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 Background: For last five years, as technological advancement occurs, novel kinds of human generation viruses’ discovery have been increased. A rare human cancer associated virus Merkel’s Cell polyomavirus (MCPyV or MCV) got remarkable attraction among the newly discovered viruses. As a common human virus MCPyV infection frequently found in skin and also occurs at other anatomical sites. Methods: In this study, the in-silico screening of miRNAs from MCPyV was done, as the computational screening procedures are functionally vital, efficient and inexpensive for the said purpose. Results: Primarily 52 sequences, possessing possible hairpin-like structures, were extracted from MCPyV genome by searching through VMir software using various filters. 17 nominees were confirmed with real pre-miRNA like hairpin organizations by iMiRNA-SSF program. Further seven nominees were excluded by free energy measurement and other parameters. 10 mature miRNAs were affirmed in 10 impending candidates for pre-miRNAs by MatureBayes web server v1.0, among these 10 candidates 2 were reported already by earlier studies. The homologous miRNA for these candidates were searched in mirBase. To find the target gene and its relevant diseases the best homologous miRNAs were then searched in Target Scan. Among all miRNAs Cancer was found to be common. Conclusion: These findings open new avenues for researchers to explore the role of these novel miRNAs in viral pathogenesis as well as in developing new antiviral therapy.  

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