Current Issue

Advancements in Life Sciences, volume 10, issue 4 – December 2023Cover; Volume 10, Issue 4
ISSN 2310-5380

IN THIS ISSUE

This 4th issue of the 10th volume has featured 26 multidisciplinary articles including 4 review articles and 22 research papers of authors from 11 countries covering aspects from different stems of life science. Enjoy reading!

 

 

 Review Articles


Phytotherapy in sexual disorder: overview of the most important medicinal plants effective on sexual disorders

Omid-Ali Adeli, KDV Prasad, Yasir Qasim Almajidi, Hasan Alauldeen Khalaf, Ahmed Hjazi, Beneen M. Hussien, Hussein Ali Hussein, Nasrollah Naghdi, Mohadeseh Pirhadi, pages 505-514
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 Sexual health is the result of the interaction of vascular, nervous and hormonal factors and is influenced by individual factors, interpersonal relationships, traditions governing family and society, culture and religion; these sexual disorders are one of the factors influencing marital life and it faces a challenge. The present study is a review of the most important medicinal plants effective on sexual disorders. In this study, a review of the key words "sexual function, sexual dysfunction, plant medicine, herbal medicine, treatment, fertility" was searched from Embase, Magiran, SID, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed and Google Scholar databases. For each herb, selected published clinical trial and review articles were used. Based on the obtained results, medicinal plants such as Tribulus terrestris, Pomegranate, Red clover Lavandula angustifolia, Elaeagnus angustifolia, Pelargonium, Melissa officinalis, Quercus brantii, Ginkgo biloba, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Crocus Sativus, Zingiber officinalis, Ros Damascena, Celery seed, Date, Fennel  and Carrot seed in clinical trials and Animal models are used to treat sexual disorders, Medicinal plants can effectively treat sexual disorders. Since hormone therapy has many side effects, increasing awareness of how herbs work on androgen, estrogen, and progesterone hormones and the sexual function of people will give us the knowledge that in couples' sexual dysfunctions, there are more choices for correction without using to have hormones with the aim of increasing the quality of life. 

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An overview of the uses of propolis for oral health
Babak Gholamine, Enas R. Alwaily, Yasser Fakri Mustafa, Ruqayah Taher Habash, Nasrollah Naghdi, Masumeh Jalalvand, Sepideh Papi, Seyedeh Mahsa Khodaei, pages 515-524
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 Propolis is a gummy agent exploited from bees, which has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-allergic, wound healing, antidiabetic, and antiviral effects against various injuries and diseases. It also produces antifungal, antitumor and local anesthetic effects. The aim of the review was to review research findings on the role of propolis in oral health. This study was conducted by reviewing published articles on the use of propolis in oral health. To this end, Persian electronic databases such as Google, SID and Magiran as well as English databases such as PubMed and WOS were searched for articles published from 1979 onwards, 140 papers were retrieved, 21 articles were excluded, and 119 articles were included in final review. So far, propolis has been studied for the treatment of surgical wounds, intracanal irrigation, inhibition of the decay process, treatment of periodontitis and dentin hypersensitivity, and potential antifungal and antibacterial activities in the canal with a mostly satisfactory efficacy. Propolis has been reported to improve surgical wounds and produce anti-decay, anti-dentin hypersensitivity and anti-aphthous ulcer properties, and to be useful as a tooth-storing medium after tooth extraction, an intracanal irrigant and a mouthwash. substances highly useful properties of propolis, it can be argued that in the future, the substance will play a substantial role in dental science are necessary to isolate its compounds and identify their beneficial effects. 

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Overdominance in livestock breeding: examples and current status
Anh Phu Nam Bui, Trinh Lam Hoang Tam, Pham Thi Phuong, Nguyen Thuy Linh, pages 525-529

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 Recent data have revealed that genetic variation could be attributed to overdominance, or heterozygote advantage. However, genomic survey showed that only a small number of genes that have polymorphisms maintained by overdominance which is consistent with many published papers. Google Web, Google scholar, NCBI Databases and OMIC Tools were used to obtain data for this review paper. Different key words were used to retrieve the required research articles and bioinformatics-based information, such as “overdominance’’ and “overdominance in animals’’. Research papers used for this review were published over the last 10 to 15 years and information regarding overdominance in livestock was considered for current review. It is hoped that in the future, more loci with overdominance will be discovered.  In this review, we will illustrate eight examples of overdominance in livestock. We also want to emphasize that given a low number of reported cases in overdominance, it does not reflect the unimportance of heterozygote advantage in adaptive functions.  

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A Review of the Effects of Omega-3 and Omega-6 on Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver
Mohammad Darvishi, Khulood Majid Alsaraf, Mariam Alaa Toama, Salema K. Hadrawi, Montather F. Ramadan, Mohadeseh Pirhadi, Omid-Ali Adeli, pages 530-536

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 Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a type of fatty fat that causes an increase in alcohol consumption. Excessive alcohol consumption causes inflammation, and liver damage. The certain fatty acids (FAs) may be involved in this liver damage. Anti-inflammatory and blood lipid lowering effects are the effects of omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs). NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome because obesity and insulin resistance are the main pathogenic factors of both diseases. NAFLD is a disease associated with metabolic syndrome. Most patients with NAFLD are obese, although the disease can also affect non-obese people. Metabolic and genetic factors play an important role in the occurrence of this disease. Oxidative stress, lipotoxicity and inflammation play a key role in the development of NAFLD. There is a lot of evidence for the therapeutic potential of omega-3 PUFAs fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), mainly docosahexaenoic acid and eicosatetraenoic acid in the treatment of metabolic diseases due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, in this review article, we examined the effects of omega-3 and omega-6 on alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. 

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Full Length Research Articles


Isolation and identification of a mycotoxin produced by Aphanoascus terreus
Abeer Mohammed Ali Al-garawyi, Amal Jameel Kadhim, Majid Mohammed Mahmood, pages 537-542

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 Background: Keratinophilic fungi prefer keratin-rich materials such as; horn, hoof, and beak of birds for the purposes of growth and reproduction, they utilize keratin as a source of carbon. Mycotoxins, which are produced as byproducts by fungi, are dangerous to both human and animal health. This research aims to isolate and identify Aphanoascus terreus fungi from the soil as well as determine their potential to create mycotoxins.

Methods: In January–April 2022, 45 soil samples were randomly collected from southern Iraq to isolation and identification of keratinophilic fungi, the hair bait method and molecular techniques were used also, detection of mycotoxin achieved by TLC technique then experimental injection in vivo.

Results: The findings showed that 12 (66.7%) out of 18 soil samples that tested positive for the genus Aphanoascus belonged to the species A. terreus. When these isolates were compared to NCBI using PCR sequencing, they were 99% matched. In addition, all these isolates show the capacity to create a range of unidentified secondary metabolites with a variety of colors and flow rates. Only one compound was studied that appeared with a turquoise hue, so we named it A. terreus  T (ATT), which has an Rf. of 18.7 cm. The analysis of secondary metabolites with the aid of FTIR and GC-MS chemical tests indicated possibilities; the most probable is that the ATT is an acidic compound. Visual examinations of the skin of rats injected with ATT showed no obvious abnormalities. Microscopically, they appeared normal as well, but with mild inflammatory signs around the hair follicles.

Conclusion: The outcomes represent the first international registration ever made in accordance with what is known about the production of a mycotoxin from A. terreus. This finding is considered the first reference regarding mycotoxin production from A. terreus. 

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Identification of Natural Compounds as CTX-M-15 Inhibitors for the Management of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria: An in-silico study
Mohammad Zubair Alam, Absarul Haque, pages 543-548

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 Background: Antibiotic resistance is a major global threat to the efficacy of bacterial infection treatment. Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in bacteria is primarily caused by the production of extended-spectrum-lactamases, with the CTX-M variant, particularly CTX-M-15, being the most common. The need for an effective CTX-M-15 inhibitor is currently pressing.

Methods: This study screened a library of natural compounds from the ZINC database against the CTX-M-15 protein using the PyRx 0.8 tool. The SwissADME web platform was used to predict the ADMET properties of the five most promising compounds.

Result: The identified hits compounds, ZINC1857626342, ZINC403692, ZINC408773, ZINC57926, and ZINC790938591 exhibited strong binding with CTX-M-15. These compounds interacted with crucial catalytic site residues in the CTX-M-15 protein, particularly Ser70 and Ser130. Notably, the binding energies of these compounds were higher than those of the reference compound avibactam. Furthermore, they exhibited pharmacologically favorable characteristics.

Conclusion: These compounds show promise as potential CTX-M-15 inhibitors to combat bacterial resistance. However, more experimental research is needed to optimize these compounds for their role as CTX-M-15 inhibitors. 

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Segmental Structure of the Human Kidney: An Innovative Research Algorithm
Edgar Kafarov, Imran Avduev, Zelimkhan Lechiev, pages 549-554 

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 Background: Understanding the anatomical structure of the human kidney, particularly its zonal and segmental organization, is crucial for both theoretical knowledge and practical applications in surgical procedures. That is why the purpose of the article was to study the variants of the zonal and segmental structure of human kidneys.

Methods: 116 corrosive preparations of the arterial system of the human kidney served as the material for the study. The authors identified their extra-organ branches: a) the number of arterial vessels in the kidney hilum; b) the topographic and anatomical features of the renal artery trunks. In a 3D projection, zones of local zonal blood supply to areas of the renal parenchyma were identified, depending on the di- and trichotomic variants of the division of the main renal artery, A. renalis (I).

Results: It was found that some lines of the passage of the zones of natural divisibility of the kidneys with different variants of the division of A. renalis (I). There were from 5 to 7 (6 ± 1) segments in the kidneys on average. It is possible that if a four-zone blood supply system with corresponding zones of natural kidney divisibility is found in the kidneys, where the zones mostly don’t coincide with the boundaries of the passage of segments in their classical version, the number of segments will be even greater.

Conclusion: The results of the conducted study show that considering the generally accepted zones and boundaries of the passage of segments with zones of natural divisibility, which were not previously considered, the kidneys have an individual segmental structure, which requires revision. The authors believe that the generally accepted classical five-segment kidney model is outdated. 

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Impact of Functional Foods on Improving the Health of the Kazakh Population
Zhassulan Kozhanov, Assiya Serikbayeva, Nazym Kozhanova, Dauren Sydykov, Kairat Sadvakassov, Maksat Mukhametkaliev, pages 555-562

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 Background: This study investigates the influence of functional foods (FFs) on the health of the Kazakh population and their potential in preventing diseases associated with inadequate and unbalanced nutrition.

Methods: The research is based on an unstructured telephone interview conducted with experts in the production, sale, and consumption of functional foods in Kazakhstan. The experts provided insights into current trends in the Kazakh functional food market, factors driving the demand for FFs, and the preferences of the Kazakh population concerning functional foods.

Result: The analysis revealed significant factors contributing to the growth in demand for FFs among the Kazakh population. These factors include an increasing interest in healthy lifestyles, marketing strategies promoting FFs, and the endorsement of biologically active supplements by medical professionals. The study also identified the most favored FFs among Kazakh consumers, with a particular preference for various pro- and synbiotic dairy products, prebiotic grain-based foods, sweetened foods, and vitamin-enriched products.

Conclusion: The findings highlight the potential of FFs in positively impacting the health of the Kazakh population and promoting preventive nutrition practices. The study emphasizes the importance of considering the general nutritional status and disease incidence in developing the range structure of FFs in Kazakhstan. The research underscores the need for a well-informed and targeted approach to meet the specific dietary requirements and preferences of the Kazakh population, thereby contributing to improved overall health and well-being. 

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The genetic diversity of Drosophila flies based on cytochrome-c oxidase subunit 1 gene from North Sulawesi
Yermia Semuel Mokosuli, Herry Maurits Sumampouw, pages 563-570

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 Background: Drosophila sp. is a fruit fly species that can spread quickly worldwide. A short life cycle, small body size, and fast adaptation to new habitats allow fruit flies to live in various parts of the world. This study characterized the genetic variation of the cytochrome oxidase c subunit  (CO1) gene in Drosophila species from different North Sulawesi regions.

Methods: Fruit fly samples were collected from six districts: Central Minahasa, Southeast Minahasa, South Minahasa, North Minahasa, Bolaang Mongondow, and Sitaro. DNA extracted from thoracic tissue The COI gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced by the Sanger method. Sequence characterization using BioEdit and MEGA XI programs.

Result: The results showed that the consensus CO1 gene sequence length was 688 bp to 700 bp. Divergent evolution based on disparity analysis showed CO1 Bolaang had the farthest sequence characteristic differences from the other five CO1 genes in North Sulawesi. Genetic distance analysis showed that Bolaang's gene sequence has the farthest genetic distance. CO1 gene consensus alignment analysis with ClustalW showed high genetic variation. The phylogenetic construction showed that CO1 Bolaang had the most significant differences in sequence characteristics from the other five sequences in a monophyletic group with different nodes. Phylogenic reconstruction with the 21 most similar sequences from BLAST showed similarities in the four Drosophila species, namely D. atriplex, D. melanogasterD. lacteicornis, and D. pandora.

Conclusion: Based on the CO1 gene, there are significant variations in fruit flies in North Sulawesi. 

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Acceptability Test of Modified Transglutaminase Gelatin from Striped Catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) Skin Based on Organoleptic and Toxicology
Nurul Fitria, Dewi Hidayati, Fredy Kurniawan, Arif Luqman, Noor Nailis Sa’adah, Edo Danilyan, pages 571-576

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 Background: Skin is one of the abundance side products of the striped catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) fillet industry in tropical countries. The previous histological study revealed that the skin of striped catfish contains high collagens which has the potential to supply the increasing halal gelatin demands. However, the texture of striped catfish skin gelatin (SCSG) at room temperature is mushy. This can be enhanced by the transglutaminase (TG) modification. SCSG modified with TG (SCSG_TG) needs to be tested for safety and consumer acceptance before being marketed. The research aims to decide the level of acute toxicity of SCSG_TG in mice (Mus musculus) and discover the organoleptic quality of SCSG_TG.

Methods: Striped catfish skin gelatin modified with transglutaminase (SCSG_TG) was acquire by CH3COOH (acid) and NaOH (base) extraction at a temperature of 58°C. Toxicity tests using mice were worked by the Limit Test Procedure of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and then analyzed descriptively and qualitatively. While organoleptic tests were worked using hedonic assessment and the Friedman test.

Results: The result shows SCSG_TG did not induce any toxic effects or death in mice. SCSG_TG 10 mg film was the most favored treatment group by the panelists (4.9-6.5) compared with SCSG_TG 0 mg (3.8-6.0) and SCSG_TG 50 mg film (4.1-6.3).

Conclusion: Hence, the striped catfish skin gelatin film modified with transglutaminase (SCSG_TG) was declared safe, non-toxic, and accepted according to the organoleptic assessment that has met the standard ("dislike" criteria <25%). 

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Ameliorative effects of Vitamin E and Urtica dioica against thiamethoxam-induced teratogenicity in embryonated chicken eggs
Rameen Raza, Latif Ahmad, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi, Muhammad Imran Arshad, Aisha Khatoon, Hidayatullah Soomro, Ahrar Khan, Shafia Tehseen Gul, pages 577-584

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 Background: The purpose of this study was to explore the defensive effects of Vitamin E (Vit. E) and Urtica dioica (UD) in the mitigation of developmental anomalies induced by thiamethoxam (TMX) in chicken embryos.

Methods: For this purpose, a total of 140 fertile eggs were equally divided into seven experimental groups (A-G); Groups A and B were kept as negative and sham control, respectively. Group C was exposed to TMX while groups D and E were supplemented with Vit. E and U. dioica, respectively along with TMX. Group F received Vit. E and group G U. dioica, only. The eggs were examined on days 10th and 20th of incubation for the assessment of developmental flaws and musculoskeletal anomalies.

Results: The mortality rate was highest (40%) in group C (TMX) followed by groups D and E (20 and 15%), respectively. Developing embryos were exposed to TMX for retarded growth weight and crown-rump length (CRL) were significantly decreased as compared to the control group. The highest survival rate was recorded in negative control group A. The teratogenic defects recorded in this study include growth retardation, decreased crown-rump length, shortened beak, exencephaly, feather scantiness, and limb deformities. Morphometric analysis revealed improved growth by all parameters in Vit. E and U. dioica supplemented groups.

Conclusion: It was concluded that developmental defects are due to induced TMX, can be counteracted with Vit. E and U. dioica and have no phytochemicals negative effects. 

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Feeding deterrence and larvicidal effects of latex serum and latex-synthesized nanoparticles of Calotropis procera against the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis
Nadia. H. Mohamed, Ahmed. M. H. Ali, Amer I. Tawfik, Mady A. Ismail Ismail, Wael. M. Abdel-Mageed, Ahmed A. M. Shoreit, pages 585-592

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 Background: Spodoptera littoralis is an important agricultural pest; thus, knowledge about the effect of latex serum and latex-synthesized nanoparticles of Calotropis procera on this species can assist in its management.. Nanotechnology is currently taking root in the agriculture economy as a substitute for pest management that is targeted, safe, and effective. The repellent and antifeedant efficacy of C. procera latex serum and its nanoparticles against S. littoralis fourth instar larvae was investigated in this work.

Methods: The process of synthesizing silver nanoparticles has been carried out, followed by their subsequent characterization. The objective of this study was to assess the antifeedant properties of the latex serum and its nanoparticles against the 4th instar larvae of S. littoralis through the implementation of a bioassay.

Results: With rising latex serum content, the proportion of repellency and hunger rose. In comparison to insects injected with latex serum, utilizing nanoparticles of LAgNPs with this larva via injection resulted in much increased mortality.

Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, insects injected with LAgNPs died at a substantially higher rate than insects injected with latex serum. LAgNPs was efficient against S. littoralis larvae and can thus be utilized to specifically control the pest. 

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N-cadherin protein-immuno-histochemical expression of the blood-testis barrier in male mice fed with diet minced with insecticide Bifenthrin
Mohammed Fawzi Faisal, Haider Abdulrasool Jaafar, pages 593-599
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 Background: Testis play role as endocrine organ by regulate and synthesis of hormones, and genital role as germ sells production (spermatogenesis) for reproduction process. The Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubule with basal lamina and endothelium of vesicles, form a special structure called blood-testis-barrier (BTB) withe protection function and specific properties that similar to blood tissue barriers of other body organs.

Methods: Forty male healthy Swiss albino mice weighing 24-30 g will be kept in 2 groups (20 for each) in the labs of Al-Nahrain University College of medicine for 6 weeks from 1 December 2022_15 Jan 2023. Regular rodent food and water will be provided and Grouping as: Group A food minced with concentration of 400mg/kg of Bifenthrin insecticides and Group B have normal food.

Results: The histological study showed partial depletion testis cells in all mice testes with non-significant decrease in interstitial space that has Leydig cells between seminiferous tubule (ST) in testis of male mice that were fed with Bifenthrin diet. There were less cadherin expression in the BTB indicating that the Bifenthrin has stressful stimulus to potentiate apoptosis in the genital and somatic (Sertoli) cells of the testis that eventually impact the cadherin protein. The Bifenthrin has as stimulant chemical factor for more apoptosis in the ST cells death with subsequently testicular atrophy and subsequently infertility. The Bifenthrin treated male mice shows significant diminish positive values of N-cadherin expression that appear as less brown coloration of immunohistochemical biomarker expression of N-cadherin in the ST cells of the testis that was best evaluated by applying Aperio software program.

Conclusions: The N-cadherin protein has pivotal role in regulation the adhesiveness of the germinative-epithelial cells in ST of the testis. The Bifenthrin insecticides as an endocrine disrupter material has great effects on spermatogenesis and tissue damage. 

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Association of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms (rs731236 and rs7975232) among Iraqi Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Riyam Abbas Kadhim, Rayah Salman Baban, Areej Abdul Abass Al- Omrani, pages 600-603
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 Background: Vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) is implicated in several aspects of human psychiatric disorders, one of them is autism spectrum disorder. Autism spectrum disorder is neurodevelopment disorder characterized by some degree of difficulty with social interaction and communication. The etiology of this disease has been linked to both hereditary and environmental factors. The aim of this study is to determine the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms(rs731236and rs7975232) in VDR gene with susceptibility of ASD childhood .

Method: A total of 44 children with ASD and 44 controls from Iraqi children were chose, with age of 2 – 11 years old. This study took place  between May 2022 and March 2023.Single­-Nucleotide Polymorphism SNP genotyping was carried out by Sanger sequencing using (genomic DNA extracted) from blood cells. The number of samples were too low due to the difficulty of drawing blood from a vein due to the child’s hyperactivity.

Result: Among two examined SNPs, the AG category of rs731236 demonstrated a significant effect, B = 1.54, OR = 4.68, p = 0.002. This finding suggests that the presence of the AG category of rs731236 increases the odds of observing the Patient category within the Group by approximately 368.24%, in comparison to the AA category of rs731236. In contrast, the GG category of rs731236 did not exhibit a significant effect, B = 0.97, OR = 2.63, p = 0.515, indicating no considerable impact on the likelihood of observing the Patient category within the Group. Furthermore, the AA category of rs7975232 revealed no significant effect, B = -0.37, OR = 0.69, p = 0.489, suggesting that it did not notably influence the odds of observing the patient category within the Group. Similarly, the CC category of rs7975232 had no significant, B = 0.71, OR = 2.03, p = 0.294.The findings of this study, support the hypothesis that rs731236 implicated in the pathophysiology of autism.

Conclusion: The combination of AG genotype of rs731236 is associated with a higher risk of ASD childhood and it is considered a promising target in the diagnosis of this disease. 

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Identification of potential inhibitors targeting DNA adenine methyltransferase of Klebsiella pneumoniae for antimicrobial resistance management: a structure-based molecular docking study
Ameerah Ali Alshehri, Ayshah Musad Almutairi, Alaa Shafie, Norah Ali Alshehri, Samia Musaad Almutairi, Farah Anjum, pages 604-608
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 Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important opportunistic pathogen that frequently causes nosocomial infections. Notably, this bacterium has emerged as a major problem in hospital settings because of its acquisition of resistance to carbapenems. The majority of antibiotics act by targeting crucial pathways within bacterial cells. However, due to the development of resistance mechanisms, the efficiency of these antibiotics has decreased. Therefore, this study focused on a putative protein (DNA adenine methyltransferase; Dam) found in K. pneumoniae that encompasses a DNA methylation protein domain, indicating a novel potential target for pharmacological intervention. DNA methylation affects bacterial virulence attenuation.

Methods: In the unavailability of a 3D structure for Dam protein in protein database, a 3D model was generated using SWISS-MODEL server and validated using computational tools. Following that, screening was performed against the Dam protein using a set of 2706 phytochemicals obtained from the ZINC database using PyRx0.8. ProTox-II platform was used to predict the physicochemical properties and various toxicity endpoints.

Results: Among the screened compounds, ZINC4214775, ZINC4095704, and ZINC4136964 had higher binding affinity for the Dam and interacted with its active site residues. The computational analyses of these three identified hits indicate that their predicted properties were within an acceptable range for evaluating toxicity. In addition, a toxicity radar chart showed that these hits were within an acceptable range.

Conclusions: These compounds have the potential to act as Dam inhibitors and could be investigated further for managing antimicrobial resistance in K. pneumoniae.

Keywords: Klebsiella pneumoniae; Dam; Antimicrobial resistance; Phytochemicals  

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Possible correlations between SH2B3 rs2078863 gene polymorphism, lifestyle, food habits and nutritional intake of Minangkabau females with hypertension
Dita Hasni, Cimi Ilmiawati, Firdawati Firdawati, Nur Indrawaty Lipoeto, pages 609-618
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 Background: Hypertension is the commonest cardiovascular risk factor and a leading cause of death worldwide.  Several genetic variants are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. this study aimed to determine the relationship between the SH2B3 rs2078863 gene variants and hypertension in Minangkabau women.

Methods: In total, 190 women aged 18-45 years old participated in this study. Patient data, including weight, height, Body Mass Index (BMI), and blood pressure examinations, were collected, and interviews regarding their nutrient intake and physical activity were assessed with the Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (SQ-FFQ) and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) questionnaires. Blood was collected from peripheral veins, followed by DNA isolation and genotyping examination using the Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) method.

Results: TT genotype in SH2B3 rs2078863 was observed to be more at risk of suffering from hypertension compared to the CC+CT genotype ((ꭓ2 (1, n=190)=8.442 p=.004, phi=.21, OR=2.48). The regression logistic analysis revealed the role of obesity, low physical activity, and age as risk factors for hypertension in the studied population (p<0.05).

Conclusion: In conclusion, the SH2B3 gene variant and lifestyle factors related to obesity, and low physical activity, increase the risk of hypertension. 

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Revealing Potential Histological Changes of Deltamethrin Exposure on Testicular Tissue in Albino Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
Fatima Salman Abd Al-Latif, Thekra Atta Ibrahim, Mohammed Nsaif Abbas, pages 619-626
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 Background: The pesticide’s broad-spectrum nature raises concerns about its impact on biodiversity, potentially disrupting delicate ecological balances and endangering various species across different trophic levels. Deltamethrin, a widely used synthetic pyrethroid, poses significant risks to both the environment and animals. Its persistence in soil and water can lead to the contamination of ecosystems, affecting non-target insects, aquatic life, and birds.

Methods: This study aims to detect the impact of deltamethrin on the testicular tissues of white rabbits treated by 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg/day for 30 days. Thirty rabbits were divided into three groups equally. The first group was the control group and was administered distilled water, while the second group experimental groups 1 and 2 received deltamethrin at a concentration of 0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg/day respectively. Tissue sections were prepared, stained and tested via a light microscope equipped with a camera.

Result: The results obtained revealed that all groups of animals treated with deltamethrin experienced disintegration in the germinal cell layer, detachment of the germinal epithelium from the basal membrane, and slight distortion in spermatozoa. The damage was more severe with increasing the concentration, Moreover, there was an increase in the contraction of some seminiferous tubules, resulting in their irregular and wavy appearance, and many cellular changes were observed, in addition to absence of spermatozoa in some seminiferous tubule lumina and Leydig cell hyperplasia.

Conclusion: The treatment with deltamethrin at different doses for one month caused severe pathological tissue damage in the testes, characterized by congestion, hemorrhage, vacuolation, and detachment of a portion of the germinal epithelium from the basement membrane.

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Exploring the Characteristics of Aerva javanica and Acacia tortilis as Promising Candidates for Sustainable Industrial Fiber
Aisha Mohamed Ahmed Alkaabi, Shaher Bano, Fouad Lamghari Ridouane, pages 627-631
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 Background: Green composites, or Natural Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites, have emerged as promising alternatives to synthetic polymers due to their biodegradability, renewability, ease of processing, low density, cost, and energy consumption. Natural fibers are created from plants, animals, and minerals, offering higher structural advantages and better performance due to higher cellulose content and microfibril arrangement. The goal of this research is to evaluate the feasibility of using Acacia tortilis bark and Aerva javanica flowers (natural visible fibers) as a composite by extracting and characterizing their chemical composition and physical characteristics.

Methods: The experiments have been done using standard methods using gravimetrical analysis and calculations.

Results: The initial phase of our studies has shown that Acacia tortilis fibers can have competitive chemical composition and tensile properties compared to common natural fibers as well as Aerva javanica, is lighter, less dense, and has promising possibilities for utilizing its fiber in developing green composites.

Conclusion: The preliminary findings indicate that Acacia tortilis fibers show competitive properties, surpassing common natural fibers and Aerva javanica, making them a promising candidate for green composite development. However, further extensive research is required for conclusive insights. 

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Molecular identification of Epstein-Barr virus in human placental tissue
Amer Nubgan, pages 632-638
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 Background: The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) relates to the torch virus family and is believed to have a substantial impact on mortality and perinatal events, as shown by epidemiological and viral studies. Moreover, there have been documented cases of EBV transmission occurring via the placenta. Nevertheless, the specific location of the EBV infection inside the placenta remains uncertain.

Methods: The genomic sequences connected to the latent EBV gene and the levels of lytic EBV gene expression in placental chorionic villous cells are examined in this work. A total of 86 placentas from patients who had miscarriage and 54 placentas from individuals who had successful births were obtained for analysis.

Results: The research employed QPCR to detect the BRLF1 (Rta) EBV lytic gene and quantify DNA burden in miscarriage patients and controls. In miscarriage patients, endpoint PCR and Sanger sequencing validated a particular region of the EBER1 EBV latent gene. BRLF1 gene presence ranged from 2.5 × 102 to 9.3 × 104 copies/mL in 75 miscarriage patients. However, a sample of 5 people with healthy deliveries showed a range of 2.0 × 102 to 2.9 × 102 copies/mL. All miscarriage samples were observed EBER1. The sequencing results indicated full sequence identity to EBV strains.

Conclusion: The detection of EBV gene expression in placental tissues in Iraq is a novel finding. The examination of EBV is of utmost importance in pregnant women who are experiencing severe illness, since it has the potential to lead to mortality in both the mother and the developing fetus. 

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Repeated Subcutaneous Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor Effect in Clinical Pregnancy Rate
Aseel Alfil, Lubna Al Anbari, pages 639-643
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 Background: One of the most important challenges to the mother during pregnancy is the implantation of a semi-allogenic fetus. Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor is a polypeptide glycoprotein mainly used in hematological diseases and post-chemotherapy, but it has recently gained some popularity as an immune-modulating agent in reproductive medicine. The study aimed to define the influence of repeated subcutaneous G-CSF administration in infertile females submits to intracytoplasmic sperm injection. 

Method: Ninety patients were taken from an outpatient infertility clinic and divided into two groups on the day of embryo transfer. The control group (49 patients) received no extra intervention, while the G-CSF group (41 patients) received a subcutaneous injection of G-CSF the first hour after embryo transfer, followed by weekly injections until a positive fetal heartbeat was detected.

Result: In the G-CSF group, the implantation rate was 20.4% compared to 7.6% in the control. In the control group, the rates of both chemical and clinical pregnancy were 18.4%, whereas they were 48.8% and 43.9%, respectively, in the G-CSF group.

Conclusion: The multiple doses of G-CSF significantly improved the implantation and pregnancy rates, so it is considered a promising drug in reproductive medicine. 

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Plausible inhibitors of malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 ATP-dependent DNA helicase

Mohammad Othman Alkurbi, pages 644-650
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 Background: There are various synthetic anticoccidial drugs available in the market for the control and treatment of coccidiosis in broilers. However, their extensive usage has resulted in the development of drug resistance as well as the presence of drug residues in meat, thus urging scientists to find alternatives for coccidiosis control. Hence, the current research was aimed at the evaluation of the anticoccidial potential of Cinnamomum verum essential oil through the application of both the in-vitro and in-vivo methods.

Methods: The bark of C. verum procured from the market was subjected to hydro-distillation procedure for extraction of the essential oil. The extracted essential oil was subjected to in-vitro evaluation in terms of percent sporulation and oocysts damage at six different concentrations (0.31, 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10% v/v). Similarly, for the in-vivo trial, 72 broiler chicks were randomly divided into six equal groups (A, B, C, D, E and F). The first five groups were infected with oocysts of mixed Eimeria species while the sixth group was kept as non-infected. When the chicks were 14 days old, the infected groups were orally given 55000 oocysts per bird. On the same day 14, the groups A, B and C were given C. verum essential oil at concentrations of 1, 2 and 3% respectively in feed whereas groups D, E and F served as positive control (Toltrazuril® treated), negative control and the normal control respectively.

Result: The results revealed C. verum oil to have an effect on the percent sporulation and oocysts damage. The oil also improved the FCR, lesion score, oocysts score, fecal score and serum biochemical parameters in the treated broilers. However, it had no significant positive effect on the hematological parameters like Hb, PCV and blood cells count, and the weight of internal organs in broilers. For most of the parameters, C. verum essential oil showed a dose-dependent effect.

Conclusion: In nutshell, C. verum essential oil possesses significant anticoccidial potential as demonstrated by the results of both the in-vitro and the in-vivo experiments. However, further studies are required for its validation and commercialization in the poultry sector. 

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Gram Negative bacteria and their Antibiotic Resistance: A Bibliometric Analysis

Jamila Ahmed, Saima Nasir, Ikram Ullah, Farhan Younas, pages 651-656
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 Background: Antibiotics are compounds made from microorganisms that destroy or prevent the growth of other microbes. The constant failure to engineer new antibiotics and imprudent usage of antibiotics resulted in the rise of antibiotics. In 2017, the World Health Organization released a list of the most pathogenic bacteria having the highest resistance against antibiotics which also included many Gram-Negative bacteria. In this study, we reviewed the data on publications on antibiotic resistant (ABR) Gram-negative bacteria by bibliometrics.

Methods: The data from 2003 to 2022 were retrieved from the Web of Science and used further for statistical analysis. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the characteristics of publications, authors, top countries, leading journals, funding agencies and collaboration aspects.

Result: The results showed a total of 10,350 publications with 7.94% annual growth rate in a linear pattern and 23.71 average citations per document on the subject. Lists of the most cited papers and papers with ranking by highest total citations per year were also retrieved. 98% of articles were published in English. Greater research output is from developed countries i.e., USA, China, India, England, Spain, Iran, Italy, Germany, and Japan. USA has the highest number of publications, citations, and Single Country Publications. USA is also the top country to have the highest collaborations with other countries.

Conclusion: The study is suggestive for most developing and least developed countries to develop collaborations with researchers from developed countries, especially the USA and UK having domination in research productivity and sources of funding. The results of this study may provide potential prospects for the study of ABR Gram-negative bacteria in the future. 

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Isolation of polysaccharide producer and heavy metal tolerant local rhizobial isolates

Mohammed Hamid Jasim, Raad Hassani Sultan, pages 657-662
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 Background: Rhizobial bacteria is an important species among the soil bacteria that inter a relationship with leguminous plant and fix nitrogen symbiotically. Importance of this relation not only for soil as soil fertilizer but also to keep our environment without pollution.

Methods: Survey was conducted to collect different strains of rhizobial from different area in Nineveh Governate in Iraq. Isolation and biochemical tests were done under laboratory conditions. Determination of exopolysaccharide and tolerance of heavy metal was conducted also. Data obtained was recorded after cultivation and incubation of rhizobial strains.

Results: The rhizobial bacteria were isolated from the following leguminous plants: Vigna unguiculata L., Trifolium alexandrinumTrigonella foenum-graecum L., Leucaena leucocephala L., Medicago sativa L., Phaseolus vulgaris L., Tribulus terrestris L. and Vicia faba L. Maximum exopolysaccharide production were reached to 3.70 gm/L by the isolate R. leguminosarum bv. Viciae  RM25,after two days of incubation. The maximum cell dry weight was 2.90 gm/L. by the isolate E. meliloti RM14, after two days of incubation. Maximum reduction in pH were 4.30 by strain E. meliloti RM5, after two days incubation. All the local isolated rhizobia were tolerated to nickel chloride for the studied concentrations: 100, 500, 1000 and 5000 µg/ ml. Also were tolerance to 100 and 500 µg/ ml of zinc sulfate and copper sulfate. 1000 µg/ ml concentration of zinc sulfate were also tolerated by all rhizobial isolates.

Conclusion: Rhizobium bacteria possess several mechanisms that allow them to tolerate heavy metal exposure. These mechanisms include the expression of efflux pumps, the presence of metal-resistance plasmids, the production of EPS, and the ability to adapt to environmental factors. Further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms behind the heavy metal tolerance in Rhizobium and to explore the potential applications of these bacteria in bioremediation of heavy metal polluted soils. 

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Traceability environmental effects of microfabric in leaves of Cupressus dupreziana plant and Soil Surrounding it given the rise in COVID19

Estabraq Mohammed Ati, Awatif M. Abdulmajeed, Basmah M. Alharbi, Reyam Naji Ajmi, Abdalkader Saeed Latif, pages 663-669
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 Background: The high death rate from COVID-19, which can increase mineral pollution in cemetery soils and necessitates future cemetery projects that are able to counteract these environmental effects, highlights the significance of studying metal concentrations in cemetery soils. The research analyzed the quantities of minerals in the cemetery soil in Najaf Governorate, Iraq, taking into account the high mortality during the sampling period in order to identify future projects for cemeteries targeted at mitigating environmental consequences.

Methods: Using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the researchers investigated the leaf features of the soils in three cemeteries. soil samples were taken three times from a depth of 10 to 30 cm Cupressus dupreziana plants considering the analysis in triplicate with averaging, analytical deviation and used in the autoregressive integrated moving averages model, this curve had 50% traceability to bioavailability to reduce contamination risk.

Results: The findings revealed elevated amounts of iron and lead (Pb) (Fe), tomb soil analysis. Take into account the rise in fatalities and the associated funerals. According to COVID-19, the estimated daily mortality toll is between (20-50); however, metal pollution may be more severe. In order to lessen the effects on the environment, the facility was expressed as a gas and effluent processor at 80% in soil of the proportion of the curve in the spatial analysis for mineral contamination.

Conclusion: The SEM and EDX can serve as reliable indicators, while the morphometric approach offers a holistic understanding of the soil and its associated plant life by analyzing elemental compositions. Employing these methods allows for quantitative assessment and comparison against the control, aiding in the thorough characterization of Cupressus dupreziana. Furthermore, these analyses shed light on the various organism clusters found within the study area's soil. 

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Identification of therapeutic phytochemicals targeting B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) as anti-acute myeloid leukemia agents: An in-silico approach
Nawal Helmi, pages 670-674
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 Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a deadly cancer. B cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) is frequently upregulated in AML and plays a vital role in the viability of both AML and AML stem cells. This study aimed to identify novel phytochemicals against BCL2 and evaluate their pharmacokinetics and toxicity prediction using in-silico tools.

Methods: In-silico screening of phytochemicals against BCL2 active site using the PyRx0.8 AutoDock tool, followed by in silico pharmacokinetic and toxicity predictions was performed. Protein-protein interaction analysis was performed using the STRING database for assessing the interactions between BCL2 and neighboring interacting proteins.

Results: In total, 1106 terpenoid compounds were screened to evaluate their binding affinity toward BCL2. Five natural compounds demonstrated strong binding to the BCL2 protein after extensive screening, detailed interaction analysis, and visual inspections. Notably, these compounds had higher binding energies than the positive control (venetoclax). In addition, these compounds were found to bind to key BCL2 residues and possess good drug-like properties.

Conclusions: The identified phytochemicals represent an important initial step in drug discovery for AML management. Experimental validation is required to optimize the identified phytochemicals as potential BCL2 inhibitors. 

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Green Nano-synthesis: Salix alba Bark-Derived Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle and their nematicidal Efficacy against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita
Sidra Ahmad, Mian Afaq Ahmad, Fazal Umar, Iqbal Munir, Neelum Iqbal, Nayab Ahmad, Gulzar Ahmad, Muhammad Ijaz, Zia ur Rahman, Syed Jehangir Shah, Hamza Iqbal, Ateeq Ur Rehman, pages 675-681
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 Background: Plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) are considered major agriculture pests, causing significant damage to crops by directly targeting the plant root system to prevent water and nutrient uptake. One of its major species, Meloidogyne incognita, is considered a serious threat to agriculture crop production worldwide. The current study was intended to evaluate the potential of Nanoparticles synthesized from Salix alba bark extract as nematicidal agent.

Methods: Phytochemical analyses of Salix alba bark extract were conducted, and nanoparticles of the same extract were synthesized and characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD (X-Ray Diffraction), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) techniques.

Results: The qualitative phytochemical analysis of Salix alba bark extract revealed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids, reducing sugars, and saponins. When applied on juveniles of the plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita, the nanoparticles demonstrated a dose and time-dependent impact. After 24 hours, the highest concentration (1000 µg/ml) of nanoparticles exhibited the greatest mortality, reaching 82.2%, while the lowest concentration resulted in a mortality rate of 34.5%. Similarly, at the 48-hour mark, the highest mortality (92.2%) was observed with 1000 µg/ml of nanoparticles, whereas the lowest concentration yielded a mortality rate of 54.5%. Extending the observation period to 72 hours, the mortality rate peaked at 98.33% with the highest nanoparticle concentration (1000 µg/ml), and the lowest mortality rate was recorded at the lowest dose, amounting to 72.5%. These results underscore the dose and time-dependent efficacy of Salix alba bark-derived nanoparticles against Meloidogyne incognita.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized from Salix alba bark can be an effective agent against plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Further experiments are recommended to study the impact of these nanoparticles on other biotic stresses. 

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