Volume 3, Issue 4

Advancements in Life Sciences, volume 3, issue 4

Published online: 25-August-2016
ISSN 2310-5380 



Is the war on terror induced-post traumatic stress disorder; the cause of suicide attack? An approach from psycho-cognitive and neurobiological perspective
Muhammad Imran Khan, Bilqees Sameem, Vahid Nikoui, Ahmad-Reza Dehpour, pages 109-111

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Short Communication

Qualitative Phytochemical Analysis and Microbial Inhibitory Activities of Pacific Rain Tree (Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr.) Pods
James Kennard S. Jacob, Eden S. David, pages 125-129
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 Background: Crop diseases and human health are always at stake and the emerging problem on the use of synthetic anti-pathogens and medicine is one of the most difficult to combat. The first step towards determining such capabilities among plants is to determine their phytochemicals. Methods: Eight preliminary phytochemical tests was done on Samanea saman which includes, test for alkaloids saponins, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids and resins. Powdered pods were subjected to ethanol and aqueous extraction. Extracts were also tested for its antifungal and anti-microbial properties against Fusarium oxysporumE. coli and S. aureus,respectivelyResults: Out of the eight phytochemical tests done, seven (7) were found to be present both on the ethanol and aqueous extracts namely, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids and resins. However, flavonoids is absent. The statistical results exhibited that there is a significant difference on the inhibitory effects against in-vitro bioassay of Fusarium oxysporumwhich is known to cause crop wilts and the two bacterial pathogens E. coli and S. aureusConclusions: The presence of such phytochemicals in Samanea saman pods revealed that it can be a basis of new, natural and non-synthetic treatments. This finding suggests that its pods can be used as antibacterial and antifungal source.  

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Review Article

Thyroid hormone dependent gene expression
Ghulam Zahara Jahangir, Faiza Saleem, Shagufta Naz, Neelma Munir, Rukhama Haq, Aleena Sumrin, pages 119-124

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 The presented work is destined to review the advances that had been made to study the role of thyroid hormone and thyroid hormone nuclear receptors in regulating the gene expression. Triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine or T4) are most important thyroid hormones. The thyroid hormones bind to their specific nuclear hormone receptors, as ligand, and play important role in gene expression and transcriptional gene regulation in human and higher animals. Thyroid hormone receptors form heterodimers by making combination with retinoid X receptors. The capability of heterodimerization of thyroid hormones generates novel complexes which allow altered specificity and higher affinity for DNA-receptor binding. Thyroid hormone receptors work as ligand activated transcription factor and play with transcriptional gene expression process. The consensus structural features of thyroid hormone receptors are N-terminal regulatory domain that contains activation function, the domain for strong gene expression and the domain for binding to DNA. The structures for individual domains have been extensively and reviewed through several latest and successful techniques. 


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Full Length Research Articles

Detection of Endothelin 2 (Et-2) as a novel biomarker of renal dysfunction in patients of liver Cirrhosis with Ascite
Amna Qureshi, Kalsoom Zaigham, Muhammad Shahzad Iqbal, Qurban Ali, pages 112-118

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 Background: Hepatorenal dysfunction in liver cirrhosis is a condition in which there is progressive kidney failure. It is a serious complication that can lead to death. Endothelin is an endothelial cell-derived peptide which is involved in renal dysfunctioning by generating oxidative stress in individuals suffering from liver cirrhosis. It can be used as important biomarker of hepatorenal dysfunction. The present study was aimed to detect endothelin-2 in the blood of patients of liver cirrhosis with ascites as important biomarker correlated to the generation of oxidative stress and renal dysfunctioning.  Methods: 50 blood and ascitic fluid samples were collected from the patients of liver cirrhosis with ascites as case group and 25 from normal individuals as control group. Endothelin-2 was detected by PCR in serum and ascetic fluid of patients and its quantification was done by Real-time PCR. ET-2 was quantified in serum samples but was not quantifiable in ascetic fluid might be due to its very low concentration. Blood urea, creatinine and uric acid with GFR were estimated as renal dysfunction parameters. Anti-oxidative enzymes glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MAD) as biomarkers of oxidative stress were estimated in order to calculate oxidative stress. The obtained data was evaluated statistically by using t-test and Pearson correlation. Results: Positive correlation was found between individual parameters of oxidative stress and renal dysfunction. Overall positive and highly significant (P<0.05) correlation of CAT, SOD, MDA, GSH levels with each other was observed, a significant (P<0.05) and positive correlation of oxidative stress parameters were found with urea, creatinine and uric acid with Glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Conclusions: It was concluded that the production of ET-2 under oxidative stress generates renal dysfunction in patients of liver cirrhosis with ascites. 


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