Volume 4, Issue 2

Advancements in Life Sciences, volume 4, issue 2

Published online: 25-February-2017
ISSN 2310-5380 



Short Communication:

Bacterial contamination of Saudi Arabian paper currency: A report from Al-Kharj
Mohammad Muqtader Ahmed, Farhat Fatima, Mohammad Javed Ansari, Ramadan Al-Shdefat, Mohammad Khalid Anwer, Shahid Jamil, Mutasim Osman Ahmed, Yonus Saeed, Mohammed Noor, Prakash Katakam, Aleemuddin M, Ayesha Farheen, pages 27-32
Read Abstract

 Background: Currency is a public support tool for exchange of commodity and services. It’s prevalent practice for acquiring bread to broast and bath to bed has connected all human being together irrespective of race and occupation. Currency notes along with their denomination values also carry pathogens if contaminated and will act as an agent for infection transference. Therefore the objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the load microbial pathogens of paper currency collected in selected public places of Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia. Methods: Currency notes under study were assessed through microbiological culture, microscopic and biochemical visualization techniques. Results: The results from this cross-sectional study suggested that lower the currency denominations higher was the microbial contaminations, frequency percentage was lower with higher isolations. Small eateries were the biggest source of contaminated currency from the ten selected centres. Percentage microorganism occurrence for Bacillus spp, Staphylococcus spp, Klebsiella spp and E. coli was 56.84%, 25.03%, 13.40% and 04.71% respectively in all currency notes under study. Conclusions: The outcomes of this study revealed that currency notes can be a source for microbe transmission causing infectious diseases represent public health hazards to the community and individuals. 

download pdfview article in html

Review Article

A report on asthma genetics studies in Pakistani population
Muhammad Usman Ghani, Muhammad Farooq Sabar, Mariam Shahid, Farheena Iqbal Awan, Muhammad Akram, pages 33-38
Read Abstract

 Pakistan is globally sixth most populous, economically developing south Asian country with tremendously increasing trend of urbanization. This increase in urbanization along with consanguineous marriages trend in Pakistani nationals might contribute as most important factors of increasing asthma prevalence. Up-till now, a few studies related to asthma genetics have been conducted in Pakistan. These studies suggest that the SNP variants like (rs2569190, rs2569191), (rs2243250, rs2227284), (rs1800896), (rs1881457, rs20541, rs1800925), (rs2280091, rs2787094, rs528557), (rs1131882) in CD14, IL-4, IL10, IL-13, ADAM33 and TBXA2R genes respectively and the SNPs (rs3816470, rs6503525, rs3859192, rs12603332) on chromosomal region 17q21 are significantly associated in Pakistani population whereas the haplotype “CCTCAG" of SNPs (rs12936231, rs7216389, rs7216558, rs9894164, rs1007654 and rs7212938) in 17q21 and ‘AAGTCG’ of SNPs (rs2280089, rs2280090, rs2280091, rs44707, rs528557, and rs612709) in ADAM-33 region are protective factor against asthma susceptibility. These studies will definitely contribute in understanding genetic basis of asthmatic complications in Pakistan and large population cohort size and sub-ethnic studies in future will give more meaningful conclusions to predict possible asthma susceptible genomic variants in sub-ethnic and general population of Pakistan.   

download pdfview article in html




Full Length Research Articles

Biosafety risk assessment approaches for insect-resistant genetically modified crops
Inaam Ullah, Muhammad Asif, Mazhar Hussain Ranjha, Romana Iftikhar, Midrar Ullah, Nasir Mehmood Khan, Muhammad Ashfaq, pages 39-46

Read Abstract

 Background: Environmental risk assessment (ERA) is imperative for commercial release of insect resistant, genetically modified crops (IR-GMCs).An insect specific, spider venom peptideω-HXTX-Hv1a (Hvt) was successfully expressed in cotton plants. The cotton plants producing Hvt protein have demonstrated resistance against economically important insect pest species. The study was performed to assess the effects of Hvt producing cotton plants on Honey bees (Apis mellifera). Methods: Three approaches were used to evaluate the effects of Hvt protein on adults of honeybees; whole plant assays in flight cages, in vitro assays with pollen of Hvt-cotton, and assays with elevated levels of purified Hvt protein. Pollens of Bt cotton or purified Bt proteins were used as control. Results: The field experiments did not yield any meaningful data due to high rate of mortality in all treatments including the control. However, the laboratory experiments provided conclusive results in which Hvt, purified or in pollens, did not affect the survival or longevity of the bees compared to the control. During the course of study we were able to compare the quality, effectiveness and economics of different experiments. Conclusions: We conclude that Hvt either purified or produced in cotton plants do not affect the survival or longevity of honey bees. We are also of the view that starting at laboratory level assays not only gives meaningful data but also saves a lot of time and money that can be spent on other important questions regarding safety of a particular transgenic crop. Hence, a purpose-based, tiered approach could be the best choice for pre-release ERA of IR-GMCs.   

download pdf

view article in html




Antimicrobial activities, pollen diversity and physicochemical properties of natural honey from Southeastern Anatolia of Turkey

Menderes Cenet, Adnan Bozdogan, Gokhan Sezer, Leyla Acar, Zeynep Ulukanli, pages 47-54

Read Abstract

 Background: Honey, a natural sweetener, is produced from the nectar of many plants. The pollen diversity, physicochemical properties, and antimicrobial activities were analyzed in honey samples from Mardin (Southeastern Anatolia). Methods: The melissopalynological method was used to identify and enumerate the pollen granules. Analytical methods and agar well diffusion assays were employed for the determination of some quality parameters and the antimicrobial potential of honey samples, respectively. Results: The pollen composition consisted of 27 taxa belonging to 13 families. The origins of all honey were determined as the multifloral sources. The most predominant taxa were mainlyHedysarum sp., Carduus sp., Melissa officinalis, Gossypium hirsitum, Paliurus spina-christi, Salixspand Pimpinella anisum. The secondary pollen taxa were Hedysarum sp., Trifolium sp.,Astragalus sp., Salix sp., Paliurus spina-christi, Asphodeline sp., Centaurea sp., Carduus sp., Zea mays and Cistus sp., respectively. Asphodeline spas a secondary pollen taxon in a honey sample could be considered as the first report. The pH, total acidity, brix, refractive index, electrical conductivity, moisture and L, a, b values of the samples varied from 3.75 to 4.28, 30 to 42, 67.3 to 85.70, 1.45 to 1.50, 12.40 to 31.61, 0.24 to 0.90, 47.81 to 57.59, -0.94 to 4.31, 20.37 to 31.28, respectively. Antimicrobial activities of the honey specimens were also effective on five bacterial species and two yeast species.Conclusions: Honey samples from Southeastern Anatolia revealed a good diversity of pollen granules. The rich multiflora of honey increases not only its nutritional quality as well as antimicrobial potential on various clinically important microorganisms. 

download pdfview article in html




Confirmation of root-knot nematode resistant gene Rmi1 using SSR markers

Musarrat Ramzan, Rifat Z Ahmad, Naheed Kauser, Anis Ali Shah, Rabia Saba, Iqtidar Hussain, Shahina Fayyaz, Saifullah Khan, pages 55-59

Read Abstract

 Background: The Root Knot Nematode (RKN) is a serious economic threat to various cultivated crops worldwide. It is a devastating pest of soybean and responsible to cause severe yield loss in Pakistan. The cultivation of resistant soybean varieties against this pest is the sustainable strategy to manage the heavy loss and increase yield. There is an utmost need to identify RKN resistant varieties of soybean against cultivated in Pakistan. The presented study is an attempt to identify and confirm the presence of resistant gene Rmi1 in soybean. Method: Molecular studies have been done using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) marker system to identify resistant soybean varieties against Root Knot Nematode (RKN) using fifteen (15) indigenous cultivars and four (4) US cultivars. DNA was isolated, purified, quantified and then used to employ various SSR markers. The amplified product is observed using gel documentation system after electrophoresis.  Results: Diagnostic SSR markers Satt-358 and Satt-492 have shown the presence of Rmi1 gene in all resistance carrying genotypes. Satt-358 amplified the fragment of 200 bp and Satt-492 generated 232 bp bands in all resistant genotypes. This study confirmed the Rmi gene locus (G248A-1) in all internationally confirmed resistant including six (6) native varieties. Conclusion: These investigations have identified six (6) resistant cultivars revealing the effective and informative sources that can be utilized in breeding programs for the selection of RKN resistance soybean genotypes in Pakistan. 

download pdfview article in html



Green synthesis and antibacterial activities of silver nanoparticles against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosaand Staphylococcus aureus

Moses Enemaduku Abalaka, Oghenerobor Benjamin Akpor, Omorefosa O. Osemwegie, pages 60-65

Read Abstract

 Background: Over the last two decades infectious agents have become more dangerous, most especially in developing countries, due to their ability to develop resistance against orthodox medicines. Many in these countries are suffering from the debilitating effects of these pathogens without any remedies in sight. The recent researches in nanoparticles derived from medicinal plants seem to be yielding positive results. Methods: We carried out synthesis of silver nanoparticles from AgNO3 and using Hyaluronic acid as a stabilizing agent to avoid aggregation in green synthesis from Ziziphus spinachristi andGarcinia kola. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to determine particle size and shape. Disc diffusion technique was used to study the susceptibility patterns of the particles on the test organisms- Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Result: The nanoparticles exhibited very high activity against the pathogens at very low concentration and showed remarkable higher activity than the crude extracts and standard antibiotics (control) with very wide zones of inhibition. The zones of inhibition ranged from 12.4±0.11 – 15.1±0.22 for the nanoparticles as against, 8.7±0.21 – 9.2±0.32 for the crude and 10.7±0.22 – 12.7±0.88 for the standard antibiotics.  Conclusion: Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles may give the long awaited breakthrough against these infectious agents to ameliorate, if not completely, win the war against these pathogens. 

download pdfview article in html




Comparative efficacy of different adjuvant containing inactivated vaccines against low-pathogenicity Avian Influenza H9N2 virus

Aayesha Riaz, Muhammad Ali Shah, Murtaz Ul Hasan, Muhammad Yameen, Mamoona Chaudhry, Aafia Malik, Muhammad Arif Zafar, Saif Ur Rehman, Ihsanullah Gawri, pages 66-71

Read Abstract

 Background: Outbreaks of low-pathogenic Avian Influenza virus H9N2 (AIV-H9N2) occurred in poultry industry in Pakistan in 1998 and caused serious economic losses. Since then, many of the AIV-H9N2 vaccines have been introduced to Pakistani market to control the virus, however, it is still circulating all over the country. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to prepare and evaluate different adjuvant containing vaccines using local isolate of AIV-H9N2 in broiler birds. Methods: Three vaccines; Alum precipitated (AP-AIV), Aluminum hydroxide gel (AH-AIV) and Oil based (OB-AIV) were prepared in the laboratory and injected into broiler birds at 7th and 14th day of age. There were four groups of birds including one control group. To evaluate the serological response of the birds to vaccines, serum antibody titers were measured using haemagglutination inhibition test (HI). Vaccinated and control birds were challenged with AIV-H9N2 and virus shedding was determined from trachea and cloacal swabs by HI. Results: Out of the three prepared OB-AIV with hydrophile lypophile balance (HLB) values 5.37, 8.01 and 9.01, the vaccine with HLB value of 8.01 was the most stable. Each of the adjuvant containing vaccine was effective in inducing high HI antibody titers. However, OB-AIV was found to be the most effective in inducing a significantly higher (P<0.05) HI titer as compared to that of AP-AIV and AH-AIV each. No significant difference was observed between the HI titers induced by AP-AIV and AH-AIV. All the vaccines also showed effective protection against AIV-H9N2 challenge in vaccinated birds. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study reports the successful preparation and evaluation of adjuvant containing inactivated AIV-H9N2 vaccines. OB-AIV formulation was found to be most effective to control the H9N2 virus infections in broiler birds. 

download pdfview article in html