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Advancements in Life Sciences, volume 9, issue 2Cover; Volume 9, Issue 2
ISSN 2310-5380 

IN THIS ISSUE

Our 2nd issue of the 9th volume is now available online. This time, we have featured 17 multidisciplinary articles including 4 reviewes, 1 short communication and 12 research papers of authors from 10 countries covering aspects from different stems of life science. Enjoy reading!

 

Review Articles


Epidemiology of Obesity in Asia: Challenges and Prevention
Asif Raheem, Rabia Sultan, Humaira Yasmeen, pages 125-130
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 Obesity is a complex, multifactorial and largely preventable disease affecting over a third of the world’s population today. In this review, prevalence of childhood and adult obesity, its causes, risk factors, interventions and management in different Asian countries was explored. It has been observed that obesity has grown up as an epidemic and it will intensify in the coming years if appropriate preventive measures are not adopted. Proper policies are needed to be implemented. Additionally, massive nation-wide public awareness programs with better structural infrastructure will be answer to this giant problematic challenge. 

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Enhancing Health Benefits of Tomato by Increasing its Antioxidant Contents through Different Techniques: A Review
Ammad abu Haraira, Hafiz Sabah-ud-din Mazhar, Afrasyab Ahmad, Muhammad Nouman Khalid, Muhammad Tariq, Shahid Nazir, Imran Habib, pages 131-142
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 Tomato is known to be a great dietary source of antioxidant lycopene which is found to be linked with reduced risk of life-threatening diseases like heart attack and cancers. Antioxidants delay the aging process by mopping up reactive free radicals from cells, those if present may damage our DNA and other vital cellular organelles. Antioxidant metabolites are a group of vitamins, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and phenolic acids that can provide effective protection against Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) by neutralizing free radicals, which are unstable molecules linked to the development of many degenerative diseases and medical conditions. There are pre and postharvest techniques available in the literature and these when adopted by the researchers showed significant progress in enhancing antioxidant contents of tomato fruit. In addition, there are various biochemical and genetic modification approaches to improve the expression of several antioxidant enhancing phytonutrients, enzymes and genes in tomato fruit. Trichoderma enriched bio-fertilizer application in tomato enhanced ascorbic acid under the treatment of 100% bio-fertilizer and beta-carotene was increased under 75% Bio-Fertilizer+25% N whereas elevated lycopene contents were observed in case of recommended dose of NPK. Various omics approaches like genomics, transcriptomics, miRNAomics, proteomics, and metabolomics have emerged as extremely helpful tools for the plant scientists in improving the beta-carotene, lycopene and antioxidant levels resulting in highly desirable new tomato cultivars.  Thus, in light of immense advantages of these techniques, the present study was undertaken to collect all the necessary information about different techniques employed by numerous researchers to increase the antioxidant contents in tomato and to document here the optimized experimental conditions that can be beneficial for future studies in this field. However, still in-depth genome wide studies are needed for better understanding and further enhancement of traits like flavor, quality and antioxidant contents in context to rapidly changing and uncertain climate. 

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Public COVID-19 vaccination acceptance: A narrative review of correlated factors
Amirali Hatami, Ahmad Hajiloo, Romina Bayati, Peyman Kakavand, Amir Hossein Nasrollahi, Amir Hossein Yarahmadi, Mohammad Javad Nourmohammadi, Heshmatollah Asadi, pages 143-150
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 Following the discovery of the first instances of COVID-19 in nations and the subsequent announcement of a “pandemic” by WHO, worldwide efforts to identify efficient methods to combat COVID-19 began. One of the most effective solutions is to carry out widespread vaccination against the virus. Despite this, some members of the community refuse to be vaccinated. The present paper reviews the potential causes and factors correlating with people's hesitation to receive COVID-19 vaccines. This article is a narrative review paper. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases using COVID-19, Vaccine, Acceptance, and Hesitancy keywords. Qualitative content analysis was performed and associated predictors with public vaccination acceptance were identified. According to the study,  hesitation in receiving COVID-19 vaccines, regardless of the countries, is significant among females, lower ages, lower education level, doubt about efficacy, and concerns about the safety of the vaccines, history of not receiving vaccines, especially the influenza vaccine, distrust of regional or national health officials, low level of health literacy and lack of information, fear of side effects and other complications, doubt of pharmaceutical companies and fear of lobbying, presence of chronic underlying diseases and comorbidities, lower socioeconomic status and racial or religious minorities. According to the results, several factors can influence individuals' uncertainty about COVID-19 vaccines. Given the importance of vaccinating the majority of the community to achieve mass immunity, healthcare systems should consider the vaccine acceptance rate to be a vital and substantial factor. 

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Biosecurity and Biosafety concerns of Research and diagnostic Laboratory under International Guidelines
Noor-Ul-Huda, Nawal Munir, Fabiha Shahid, Iqra Iftikhar, Hafiz Muhammad Rehman, Shehla Javaid, Mubeen Fatima, Iqra Rehman, Momal Babar, pages 151-156
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 The need for fossils fuels, including oil, coal and natural gases, has increased dramatically due to a vast expansion in human population and economic growth. The emission of greenhouse gases from fossil fuels leads to disastrous alterations in the earth's climate. In a few decades, fossil fuels will run out because of their non-renewability. Many researchers are motivated to develop new renewable energy sources to replace fossil fuels. Recent research has identified microalgae as a promising resource for the production of biohydrogen and biodiesel. Biohydrogen production affords an environmentally friendly and sustainable approach to generate clear, clean and reliable energy from renewable resources. Green microalgae use sunlight to convert water molecules into oxygen and molecular hydrogen under special conditions. Microalgae have also been reported as a promising feedstock for biodiesel production, as biodiesel is considered the best alternative to petroleum-derived diesel. In the present review, the production of biohydrogen and biodiesel from microalgae through different methods, including indirect and direct biophotolysis, transesterification and lipid synthesis, enhancement approach, is briefly discussed. This article is critical for exploring ideas for future research that can be applied in the commercialization of biohydrogen and biodiesel from microalgae biomass. 

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Full Length Research Articles


Phytochemistry of Ziziphus Mauritiana; its Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential
Mohsin Javed, Rabiya Bibi, Khalida Nazir, Shabbir Hussain, pages 157-162
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 Background: Z. mauritiana is a very common and easily available plant all over the world, including Pakistan. It finds a lot of importance due to its nutritional and medicinal value.

Methods: Current studies were performed to investigate the phytochemical nature and antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Z. mauritiana (Lahore, Pakistan). Total phenolic contents in leaves and pulp extracts were identified using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu’s method while total sugars were determined by Lane and Eynon method. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 517 nm. The antimicrobial potential was tested by agar well diffusion method using imipenem as standard drug.

Results: The methanolic extracts of leaves and pulp contained tannins, saponins, phlobatannins, alkaloids and flavonoids while steroids were absent in both the samples. The pulp and leave extracts have shown the presence of 57.3% and 37.89% sugar contents, respectively. The concertation of total phenolic contents (TPC) was found higher in pulp extracts as compared to that observed in leaves. The methanolic pulp extract has shown higher antioxidant potential as compared to the leaves extract. However, methanolic leaves extract exhibited higher antibacterial potential as compared to the methanolic pulp extract.

Conclusion: The methanolic extracts of Z. Mauritiana pulp and leaves contain many biologically active ingredients and are biologically active against most of the tested bacterial strains. Its pulp and leaves are richer in numerous antioxidants and secondary metabolites. The pulp extract exhibited higher antioxidant potential as compared to the leaves extract. 

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Seroprevalence and Risk factor of Brucella Abortus in Cattle (Indigenous and crossbred) in District Layyah
Muhammad Ikram, Asghar Hussain, Muhammad Kashif, Muhammad Tarique Tunio, Usman Waheed, Asghar Abbas, Tanveer Ahmad, Atif Rahman, pages 163-168

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 Background: Brucellosis is very important infectious, zoonotic disease all over the world affecting variety species, causing severe economic losses in animals and severe illness in human beings. This study was planned to find the seroprevalence and associated risk factors with Brucella Abortus in indigenous and crossbreed cattle of District Layyah.

Methods: The blood sample were collected from 350 blood animals and screened by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) using anti-Brucella antibodies. The seropositive samples were confirmed through indirect ELISA tests. The information on risk factors associated with brucellosis were collected on pre-designed questionnaires.

Results: The result of the present study showed the overall prevalence of 6.97% in cattle in district Layyah. It was more prevalent in the age group of 2-5 years (14.6%) as compared to that of the age group 5-10 years (6.25%). The prevalence was significantly higher in the cattle with history of abortion (52.38%) as compared to the non-aborted cattle (3%). The crossbreed animals were found to be more affected than indigenous animals.

Conclusion: There is a dire need to eliminate the seropositive animals by application of proper control programme and eradicate this zoonotic disease in developing countries especially in Pakistan.  

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Assessment of antimicrobial, antialgal and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts from rhizospheric and freshwater cyanobacterial strains
Waheed Murad, Aatif Amin, Muhammad Hissan Khan, Nasir Mahmood, Mehboob Ahmed, pages 169-176

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 Background: This study describes the evaluation of antimicrobial, antialgal and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts from cyanobacterial strains isolated from rhizospheric and freshwater environment.

Methods: Four cyanobacterial strains were isolated from freshwater and rhizospheric samples collected from various sites of University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Selected strains were identified by 16S rDNA ribotyping as species of genera, Cyanothece (CY1), Synechococcus (CY2), Leptolyngbya (CY3) and Synechococcus (CY4). The organic extracts i.e., methanolic, ethanolic and acetonic of selected cyanobacterial strains were checked for antibacterial and cytotoxic activity. Antibacterial and antialgal activities of cyanobacterial extracts were determined against, four Gram positive and three Gram negative bacteria using Muller-Hinton (MH) agar well diffusion assay and two algal species using 96-well microtiter plate respectively. Cytotoxic activity was determined against Vero cells and Huh-7 cells.

Results: The results showed that all cyanobacterial extracts showed activities against Gram positive bacteria while some of the extracts showed activity against Gram negative bacteria. Acetonic extract of CY4 and CY2 showed moderate discoloration against Chlamydomonas sp. and Chroococcus sp. respectively. In cytotoxicity bioassay, methanolic extracts of strain CY1 and CY2 were most active with an IC50 of 0.625 mg/ml against Vero cells while acetonic extract of strain CY1 showed highest activity against Huh-7 cells (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The data of current study conclusively suggest that selected cyanobacteria may be an excellent source for further fractionation to obtain novel antibacterial, antialgal and anticancer substances.  

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The effect of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) on inflammatory markers (total leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count and tumor necrosis factor-alpha)
Saima Tabassum, Ambreen Anjum, Sobia Manzoor, Wardah Anwar, Muhammad Hashim Ghouri, pages 177-181

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 Background: Inflammation is involved in pathogenesis of many diseases. Anti-inflammatory chemicals can be used to treat such illness especially if they are derived from plant sources as they will have fewer side effects. To find out the outcome of ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum flower buds on markers of inflammation in albino rats.

Methods: Anti-inflammatory activity was investigated in albino rats using an experimental model of inflammation, the “formalin test” (injecting 5 % formalin into subplantar surface of right hind paw of the rat). Ninety rats were uniformly divided into three groups designated as control A, experimental B and reference C. Intraperitoneal injections of normal saline, Syzygium aromaticum flower bud extract and indomethacin were used. In these rats, foot edema was measured by Vernier caliper. Blood sampling was done through cardiac puncture under anesthesia to determine total and differential leukocyte counts and serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels.

Results: The clove extract produced significant (p=0.00) decrease in inflammatory response initiated by 5% formalin. The extract significantly decreased (p=0.009) serum TNF-α. However, its effect on the total and differential leukocyte counts was non-significant (p˃0.05).

Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum possess powerful anti-inflammatory effects. Anti-inflammatory effect of this herb is mainly through reduction in inflammatory cytokines level. By accepting effective herbaceous therapy, we can bring forth a revolutionary solution in management of inflammation with fewer side effects.  

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Estimation of Genetic Divergence in 40 Elite Cotton Germplasm
Nadia Jabbar, Raheela Waheed, Iqra Arooj, Sara Janiad, Humaira Yasmeen, Uzma Irfan, Naima Zaheer, Ambreen Ahmed, Atia Iqbal, pages 182-187

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 Background: Identification and development of superior cotton genotypes and their further improvement has been one of the primitive aims of plant breeding programmers. Therefore, necessity of analyzing the agro-morphological and yield attributes of advanced lines of cotton is doubtless.

Methods: Mean performance and correlation between ten different morphological, yield and fiber related attributes of forty cotton genotypes from all over the Pakistan under National Coordinated Varietal Trial were studied at Central Cotton Research Institute of Multan. Selected traits included several sympodial and monopodial branches, plant height, number of bolls per plant, staple length, seed cotton yield, boll weight, fiber strength, percentage ginning out turn and micronaire value.

Results: Statistical analysis of variance disclosed highly significant (p<0.01) differences among all cotton genotypes for majority of the characteristics. Basic descriptive statistical analysis of selected agronomic traits revealed the presence of substantial genetic variation among 40 genotypes of cotton for 10 selected traits. The correlation coefficient was determined both at p<0.05 and p<0.01 levels and the observations demonstrated that some of the characteristics exhibited positive correlation, while others displayed negative correlation with each other. Micronaire showed highly significant positive association with percentage ginning out turn (0.3412) and boll weight (0.2421 g) as well as highly significant negative association with fiber strength (-0.5973).

Conclusion: Convincingly, mean performances and correlation of different traits with one another can be utilized in cotton breeding programs in future to improve the yield of cotton seed and to select fiber related attributes with desired characteristics. 

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Antimicrobial Compliance with CPAP in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: sleeping times with and without apparatus: A pilot study
Charles Geale, Shahid Akhtar Akhund, pages 188-194

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 Background: It has long been understood that Continuous Positive Airway Presssure CPAP adherence is not perfect in most patients, which may impact the long-term therapeutic benefits of treatment. This study aimed to investigate the sleep patterns and compliance with treatment of adults with obstructive sleep apnoea who are using CPAP and how these may affect the disease-modifying effects of CPAP.

Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of CPAP compliance in patients with moderate-to-severe OSA. The data of patients visiting regional general practice were collected by a survey.

Results: More than half (66%) of the participants recorded partial compliance with CPAP, removing the apparatus and returning to sleep without CPAP once per week or more. Most (83%) participants claimed that they were receiving four or more hours of CPAP therapy per night. For the sub-group with reduced CPAP compliance, the most significant factors which influenced use are mask discomfort (50%) and relief of daytime symptoms (63%).

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that CPAP users who met the criteria for adequate adherence to treatment may still have periods of sleep when they were exposed to disease triggering apnoeic episodes. The research in future should compare the long-term benefits of CPAP on morbidity and mortality between groups with perfect and partial compliance with treatment. 

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Efficacy of Pelargonium graveolens essential oils against some postharvest fungal diseases of apple
Yassir Elouadi, Hajar Bendaif, Hamza Assaggaf, Emad M Abdallah, Mouna Mekkaoui, Hanae Naceiri Mrabti, Mounir Manssouri, Tauofiq Benali, Abdelhakim Bouyahya, Abdelhamid Bouyanzer, pages 195-201

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 Background: Postharvest diseases that occur in apples are often caused by various pathogenic fungi, causing serious economic loss. The pathogenic fungi Penicillium expansumRhizopus stolonifer and Botrytis cinerea are among the most common pathogens in apples. The goal of this study was to see whether Moroccan Pelargonium graveolens essential oil (PGEO) could protect apple fruits from fungal infections after they were harvested (in vitro).

Methods: PGEO was characterized by GC-MS and for antifungal assessment, in vitro poisoned food (PF) and volatile activity testing (VA) were carried out.

Results: The investigation revealed that PGEO was effective against the three tested phytopathogenic fungi in a dose-dependent manner and this antifungal activity increased with the volatile activity test. The MIC value was 2 µL/mL for B. cinera, and R. stolonifer, and 1 µL/mL for P. expansum. Volatile fraction stops the growth of B. cinera at 40 µL / disc (QMI = 40 µL / disc), and of P. expansum and R. stolonifer at 80 µL / disc (QMI = 80 µL / disc).

Conclusion: The current findings show that Moroccan PGEO has powerful antifungal activities, suggesting that it might be used instead of synthetic fungicides to combat apple post-harvest infections. 

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The Association of Nine Novel Variants in the ZEB2 Gene with Serum Levels of TNF-α, TGF-β and IFN-γ
Zahraa Hashim Rabae, Jawdat N. Gaaib, pages 202-206

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 Background: ZEB1 and ZEB2, are expressed by a variety of immune cells of both myeloid and lymphoid lineages, they act to regulate important transcriptional networks necessary for cell differentiation, maintenance, and function. The study was carried out in the Department of Clinical Laboratories / College of Applied Medical Sciences / University of Kerbala during the period from January 2021 to September 2021. The study aimed to shed light on the association between the variation of the ZEB2 gene and serum levels of some cytokines (TNF-α, TGF-β, INF-γ) involved in immune cell differentiation in the Iraqi population.

Methods: A total of 80 healthy volunteers, randomly chosen, were enrolled in this study, with an age ranged 20-50 years at the time of the investigation. The variation of the ZEB2 gene was investigated by the Sanger sequencing method. The serum levels of TNF-α, TGF-β and INF-γ were measured by ELISA.

Results: The results identified presence of nine novel non-registered variants in 27 samples, 5 out of 9 variants were detected in exon1 region, while the other 4 were detected in the 5`UTR region. These variants might be of interest to the ZEB2 gene studies due to their presence in the coding and regulatory regions that regulate the gene expression.

Conclusion: The two variants, 144520053 G/A and 144520162 T/A, among the nine novel variants might be the most important variants because both showed significant effects on some study parameters. 

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Heritability of physiological traits of barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) under salinity stress
Siavash Solhi Andarab, Varahram Rashidi, Hossein Shahbazi, Farhad Farahvash, Alireza Ahmadzadeh, pages 207-213

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 Background: In this paper, to determine the genetic parameters and heritability of physiological traits related to salinity stress in barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.), a 7×7 half diallel cross was conducted at Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, during 2016-2017.

Methods: F1 seeds are used in this experiment. These seeds have been grown under non-stress conditions, 8 and 12 dS/ m salinity stress levels, in a greenhouse alongside the parent plants. After exposure of plants to salinity, Leaf chlorophyll content, Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Stomatal Conductance were measured.

Results: Narrow sense heritability of chlorophyll content ranged from 0.29 to 0.40. These values for chlorophyll fluorescence ranged from 0.16 to 0.24 and for stomatal conductance ranged from 0.26 to 0.54. Broad sense heritability was high among the evaluated traits and ranged from 0.70 to 0.87. The degree of average dominance was higher than one in all of traits.

Conclusion: This observation indicated some degree of over dominance in control of the traits. Although dominant alleles were not observed in leaf chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence, yet they were favorable in stomatal conductance. 

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Frequency of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients Infected with Hepatitis C Virus visiting a Tertiary Care Hospital in Lahore for Computed Tomographic Evaluation
Nozaina Irum, Muhammad Zakir, Imran Yousaf, Muhammad Yousaf Farooq, Amna Akhtar, Sidra Mehmood, Saleha Tariq, Fakhur-un-Nisa Bhatti, Rija Zaigham, Zareen Fatima, pages 214-218

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 Background: Hepatitis C virus has been identified as one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease and its complications world-wide. Subsequent development of hepatocellular carcinoma in these patients is a major complication of this infection having serious implications on morbidity and mortality rates. The objective of this study was to find out the frequency of Hepatocellular carcinoma in patients suffering from Hepatitis C visiting Radiology department of a tertiary care hospital for multi-detector computed tomography evaluation.

Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted at Shalamar Hospital Lahore. A total of 195 patients, suffering from Hepatitis C, visiting Shalamar Hospital, Lahore for evaluation by CT during 6 months study interval were included in this study. Abdominal CT was performed using Triphasic contrast enhancement protocol. All images were interpreted by a senior Radiologist. Frequency of Hepatocellular carcinoma was calculated. Statistical analysis was made using MEDCALC.

Results: Out of 195, 63(32.3%) patients were seen to have hepatocellular carcinoma. This disease was more common in male, 45(34.6%) as compared to female patients 18 (27.7%). The presence of HCC showed statistically significant association with alcoholism, obesity, diabetes mellitus and cirrhosis.

Conclusion: The study concluded that a substantial number of HCV positive patients develop HCC, which is more common in men as compared to women. The presence of HCC is strongly associated with alcoholism, obesity, diabetes mellitus and cirrhosis. 

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Oleanolic acid (pentacyclic triterpenes) as a potential candidate for α-glycosidase inhibition activity
Shabnam Javed, Iqra Javaid, Amna Shoaib, Shagufta Perveen, pages 219-223

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 Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common health dilemma worldwide and is characterized by hyperglycemia. Inhibition in the activity of one of the digestive tract enzymes α-glucosidase is one of the therapeutic approaches to hydrolyze carbohydrates into glucose using natural agents. Many natural compounds with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity have transpired to be secondary metabolites. Monotheca buxifolia, native to Pakistan is a major medicinal tree, which has been known for its extensive pharmacological activities.

Methods: α-glucosidase activity of ten isolated compounds (lupeol, lupeol acetate, betulin, β-sitosterol, β-amyrin, oleanolic acid, vanillic acid, protocatechuic acid, kaempferol and quercetin) from lipophilic hexane fraction of M. buxifolia (stem and leaves) was assessed against α-glucosidase enzyme using acarbose as a control.

Results: All ten compounds hold α-glucosidase inhibition potential (91-99%). However, IC50 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) values of oleanolic acid (5 µM) were 8-fold lower than that of acarbose. Moreover, inhibition potencies of lupeol (15.87 µM), β-amyrin (18.14 µM) betulin (21.49 µM), quercetin (23.47 µM), and lupeol acetate (29.45 µM) were much stronger than the inhibitory effect obtained from acarbose (38.25 µM).

Conclusion: Oleanolic acid of M. buxifolia exhibited a potent inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase, therefore, oleanolic acid may be utilized in medicinal formulations against diabetic disorders. 

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An Investigation into the Evaluation of the Satisfaction with Prenatal Care Services among Pregnant Women Attending Healthcare Centers during Pregnancy in the Capital of Lorestan Province, Iran
Khatereh Anbari, Amir Hossein Yousefvand, Pardis Qanadi, Firouz Amraie, pages 224-230

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 Background: Pregnancy period is one of the most important periods for mother and infant, and the maternal and fetal health during this period is of paramount importance. This study aimed to evaluate the satisfaction with prenatal (also known as antenatal) care services among pregnant women attending healthcare centers in the capital of Lorestan province (Khorramabad, west Iran).

Methods: This cross-sectional (descriptive-analytical) study evaluated the satisfaction with benefitting from prenatal care services among pregnant women in the last months of pregnancy. The research sample was selected using a multistage sampling method involving a combination of stratified, cluster, and random sampling. The required data were gathered using a three-part questionnaire, including information regarding demographic survey questions, information about the extent to which pregnant women in Khorramabad benefit from prenatal care services, and the degree of pregnant women's satisfaction with prenatal care. Independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data.

Results: According to the obtained results, the mean score of benefiting from and satisfaction with prenatal care services was high. The difference in the score of benefitting from services was statistically significant in terms of type of pregnancy and a history of stillbirth (p <0.05). The number of children, occupation, and type of pregnancy were statistically significant, and these factors produced the mean satisfaction score (p <0.05).

Conclusion: To increase the rate of benefiting from and satisfaction with prenatal care services among pregnant women, the health authorities of the region should take effective practical and educational measures to improve the quality-of-care delivery, train health service providers, and complete and equip prenatal centers. 

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Biological movement of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae in Pakistan; A pioneer project of CEMB, Punjab, Pakistan
Ishrat Aziz, Saadat Ali, Zia Rehman, Sheikh Riazuddin, Ahmad Ali Shahid, pages 231-234

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 Background: In Asia, germ plasm exchange in different ecosystems, has been observed. This exchange causes movement of different pathogens. In present study, we worked on movement of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causing bacterial blight of rice. In 1976, this disease was first recorded from Punjab (Pakistan) but the cultivars of that time showed resistance against bacterial blight. Then in 1984, the disease was seen on IRRI9. Tremendous increase of this pathogen has become prevalent due to increase in demand of Basmati 385 (cultivar), and now it is one of the most important rice diseases in Pakistan. Hypothesis of present study is “there is genetic diversity of Xoo in different rice growing areas of Punjab, Pakistan.”

Methods: By fingerprinting; the movement pattern of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae were searched out in present study. The IS1112; a repetitive element of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae was used to fingerprint twenty-one bacterial strains.

Results: We compared local strains with that of provided by IRRI Philippine (International Rice Research Institute, Philippine). The obtained clusters were correlated with regional differentiation.

Conclusion: Present reported work is the pioneer study (1998-2000) which clued the occurrence of regional movement of pathogen via germ plasm exchange. This study may also provide help to forensics to watch the bioterrorism.  

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